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Tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini sotib olishning 61 foizi yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlardir

Tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini sotib olishning 61 foizi yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlardir



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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition jurnalining yangi tadqiqotida amerikalik iste'molchilarning odatlari asosan qayta ishlangan ovqatlar bilan bog'langan

Organik va lokal mahsulotlarning o'sha tendentsiyalari? Biz shunchaki o'zimizni aldashimiz mumkin.

Organik ovqatlar savdosi oshib borayotgan bo'lsa -da, o'zingizni aldamang: biz hali ham xarid qilish aravalarini chip va pechenye bilan yuklamoqdamiz. Yangi tadqiqot American Journal of Clinical Nutrition jurnalining ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, amerikalik oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining deyarli uchdan ikki qismi-61 foizi. yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlar. Bundan tashqari, Amerika oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining 77 foizi o'rtacha yoki yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlardan iborat. Bu shuni anglatadiki, o'rtacha amerikalik har kuni 1000 kaloriyadan ortiq qayta ishlangan ovqat iste'mol qiladi.

Ammo asabiylashmang va oshxonangizni tozalashni boshlang: so'z qayta ishlandi, USDA standartlariga muvofiq, deb belgilanadi "Qoplangan tovarlardan olingan chakana tovar, aniq ishlovdan o'tgan, natijada qoplanadigan tovarning xarakteri o'zgaradi." Bu ta'rifga ko'ra, sut, qatiq va pishloq kabi pasterizatsiya qilingan sut mahsulotlari, shuningdek muzlatilgan sabzavotlar qayta ishlangan ovqatlardir: nafaqat sizning odatdagi gumonlanuvchilaringiz Oreos va Twinkies.

"Yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini sotib olish-AQShning xarid qilish modelining asosiy qismi, lekin kam ishlov berilgan ovqatlar bilan solishtirganda to'yingan yog ', shakar va natriy miqdori yuqori bo'lishi mumkin", deb xulosa qilgan mualliflar. "Ozuqa moddalarining xilma -xilligi, toifalar ichidagi oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini tanlash muhim bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi."


Tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini sotib olishning 61 foizi yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlar - retseptlar

Ultra qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat iste'moli va barcha sabablar o'limi o'rtasidagi bo'lajak bog'liqlikni baholash va iso-kaloriyali qayta ishlanmagan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini almashtirish ta'sirini o'rganish.

Bemorlar va usullar

ENRICA tadqiqotidan 11,898 kishidan iborat (o'rtacha yoshi 46,9 yosh va ayollarning 50,5 foizi) aholiga asoslangan kogort, ispan populyatsiyasining vakolatli namunasi. Ratsion haqidagi ma'lumotlar kompyuterga asoslangan tasdiqlangan ovqatlanish tarixi bilan to'plangan va NOVA tasnifi yordamida ishlov berish darajasiga ko'ra tasniflangan. O'limning umumiy ko'rsatkichi o'limning milliy indeksidan olingan. Kuzatuv boshlang'ich bosqichidan (2008-2010 yillar) o'limgacha yoki 2016 yil 31 dekabrgacha davom etdi, qaysi biri birinchi bo'lsa. Ultra qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini iste'mol qilish chorakligi va o'lim o'rtasidagi bog'liqlik, asosiy aralashuvchilar uchun moslashtirilgan Cox modellari tomonidan tahlil qilindi. Izo-kaloriya almashinuvidan foydalanganda, cheklangan kub-splinlar dozaga javob munosabatlarini baholash uchun ishlatilgan.

Natijalar

O'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining o'rtacha iste'moli 385 g/s ni tashkil etdi (umumiy iste'mol qilingan energiyaning 24,4%). O'rtacha 7,7 yillik kuzatuvdan so'ng (93,599 kishi-yil), 440 o'lim sodir bo'ldi. O'lim uchun xavf darajasi (va 95% CI) yuqori qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat iste'molining eng past darajasiga nisbatan 1.44 (95% CI, 1.01-2.07) P. trend = .03) energiya foizida va 1,46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05 P. trend = .03) kilogramm uchun kuniga grammda. Isokalorik ultra-qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlanmagan yoki minimal darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlar bilan almashtirish o'limning chiziqli bo'lmagan pasayishiga olib keldi.

Xulosa

Ultra qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining yuqori iste'moli umumiy aholi orasida o'limning ko'payishi bilan bog'liq edi. Bundan tashqari, ultra-qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlanmagan yoki minimal darajada qayta ishlangan izo-kaloriya almashinuvi o'lim xavfini kamaytiradi. Agar tasdiqlansa, bu topilmalar milliy va xalqaro darajada ovqatlanish siyosati va qo'llanmalarini ishlab chiqish zarurligini tasdiqlaydi.


6 Ultra qayta ishlangan ovqatlar hozir tashlanishi kerak

Bundan tashqari, siz uyda va mdashinstead -da sotib olishingiz mumkin bo'lgan sog'lom versiyalarni sotib olishingiz mumkin.

Jurnalda e'lon qilingan dahshatli tadqiqot BMJ ochiq Ma'lum bo'lishicha, amerikaliklar uchun o'rtacha kundalik ratsiondagi kaloriyalarning 60 foizi & quot; qayta ishlangan & quot; oziq-ovqatlardan iborat bo'lib, ular aynan shunday ko'rinadi: qo'shimchalar va vodorodlangan yog'lar, sun'iy lazzatlar va emulsifikatorlarni o'z ichiga olgan qayta ishlangan ovqatlar. tan olmoq.

Tadqiqotchilar, shuningdek, o'ta qayta ishlangan ovqatlar biz iste'mol qiladigan shakarning 90% ni tashkil etishini aniqladilar, bu esa semirish, 2-toifa diabet va yurak xastaligi xavfini oshiradi. Yikes.     bilan suhbatdaHealthDay yangiliklari, 򠺭id tadqiqot muallifi ਎uridice Martinez Steele dietamizni tozalash muhimligini ta'kidladi.   & quot; Haddan tashqari shakar qo'shilmaslikning oddiy usuli bor — haqiqiy ovqatni o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat va ichimliklar bilan almashtirmaydi, & quot; .

Yaxshiyamki, o'zingiz yoqtirgan taomlarning uy qurilishi versiyasini yaratish siz o'ylaganingizdan osonroqdir.  Va siz hech qachon apattsiyada qulay qadoqlangan atir-upalarni qasam ichmasligingiz kerak, deydi  SalomatlikOziqlanish muharriri Sintiya Sass, MPH, RD. Siz shunchaki yorliqlarni diqqat bilan o'qib chiqishingiz kerak:   & quot; Mening fikrimcha, agar ingredientlar ro'yxati sizning oshxonangizda tayyorlanadigan retseptga o'xshasa, siz to'g'ri yo'ldan ketasiz. & Quot

Bu erda, Sass sizning oshxonangizda o'ta qayta ishlangan oltita eng yomon oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini ko'rsatib turibdi, siz   sotib olishingiz yoki uyda qilishingiz mumkin bo'lgan sog'lom versiyalar.

Chipslar

Eng taniqli huquqbuzarlar, deydi Sass, sun'iy lazzatlar, ranglar va konservantlardan iborat brendlar. (Bu neon-to'q sariq rangdagi hamma narsa chiqib ketgan degan ma'noni anglatadi.) Sizning eng yaxshi tanlovingiz-bu oddiy choynak chipi, faqat uchta oddiy ingredient: kartoshka, zaytun yoki kungaboqar yog'i va tuz. Boshqa yaxshi variantlar orasida kaloriya miqdori past, tolaga boy va antioksidantlarga boy bo'lgan organik ko'k makkajo'xori chiplari va  popcorn kiradi. Yaxshisi, o'z qo'llaringiz bilan DIY yo'lini tanlang.   Pishgan karam chiplarini, shuningdek pechda qovurilgan shirin kartoshka chiplarini tayyorlash oson. Quyidagi videoda asta-sekin ko'rsatmalarga amal qiling.

Paketlangan gazak keklari

Sizning oshxonangizda bir necha yillar davom etadigan plastik o'ralgan pirojnalar shakar va konservantlar bilan to'ldirilgan (shuning uchun ular uzoq umr ko'rishadi). O'zingizning shirin taomlaringizni qamchilash yaxshiroq variant, deydi Sass. No'xat yoki bodom uni kabi oq unga ozuqa moddalariga boy alternativani ishlatishingiz mumkin, shuningdek, shakar va sariyog'ni sog'lom almashtirish bilan kamaytiring. Sass retseptdagi shakarning yarmini pyuresi bilan almashtirishni tavsiya qiladi (banan pyuresi va xurmo pastasi yaxshi ishlaydi) va har bir osh qoshiq sariyog'ini yarim osh qoshiq avakado bilan almashtirishni tavsiya qiladi.

Shirin tuzatishni xohlaysizmi, stat? "Men yangi uzilgan mevalar, mevalar, nok bo'laklarini, mavsumda nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, ularni skovorodkada ozgina limonli suv bilan isitishni yaxshi ko'raman", deydi Sass. & quot; Keyin men bodom yog'i, jo'xori va dolchin bilan uy qurib, mevaning ustiga sepaman.

Ba'zi nonlar

Siz allaqachon bilasizki, juda ko'p miqdorda qayta ishlangan oq nonni tolaga boy bo'lgan donli nonlardan voz kechishni bilasiz, bu sizga juda ko'p foyda keltiradi. To'g'ri nonni tanlash qiyin bo'lishi mumkin, chunki hatto sog'lom ko'rinadigan navlarda ham qo'shimchalar bo'lishi mumkin: & quot; Non-ingredientlar ro'yxatini o'qish juda muhim bo'lgan taomlardan biri, & quot;-tushuntiradi Sass. Umuman olganda, u donli yoki kleykovina bo'lmagan, hatto sun'iy qo'shimchalar yoki konservantlar bo'lmagan donli nonni qidirishni tavsiya qiladi. Agar shubhangiz bo'lsa, muzlatilgan ovqatlar bo'limini tekshiring, deydi Sass. Bu mantiqiy: eng sog'lom nonlar & quotehtiyoj muzlatib qo'yish kerak, chunki ular tarkibida apostansiz konservantlar yo'q, - tushuntiradi u.

Soda dietasi

Ha, siz buni oldindan eshitgansiz. Ammo jiddiy aytganda, sodali suv bilan oziqlantirishdan voz kechish vaqti keldi. Oziqlanish qiymati nolga teng bo'lmaganidan tashqari, tarkibida aspartam, saxarin va sukraloz kabi sun'iy tatlandırıcılar mavjud bo'lib, ular bosh og'rig'i, depressiya va 2 -toifa diabet xavfi bilan bog'liq. Agar siz apostolni eski H2O ga o'rganishga ko'niksangiz,   ko'pikli yoki xushbo'y suvni tanlang. & quot; Faqat gazlangan suv va tabiiy ta'mga ega bo'lgan birini tanlang, - deydi Sass.

Muzlatilgan pizza

Afsuski, oldindan tayyorlangan pitssaning minimal darajada qayta ishlangan versiyasi yo'q. Eng yaxshi alternativ, deydi Sass, o'zingiz xamir tayyorlaysiz. U mayda bo'lakchali karamdan pishiradi, u hatto pizza ishqibozlarini xursand qiladi va uni sabzavot va yangi ko'katlarga to'ldiradi.

Shirinlik

Birinchidan, konfet haqida yomon xabar: Siz biladigan va yaxshi ko'radigan kinoteatr brendlarining ko'pchiligida yuqori fruktoza makkajo'xori siropi va sun'iy lazzatlar mavjud. Ammo yaxshi xabar bor bor u erda yaxshiroq variantlar. & quot; Yetmish foiz quyuq shokolad - shirinlikka ajoyib alternativa, & quot; - deydi Sass, u qon bosimi va xolesterinni tushirishga yordam beradigan & xA0magneziy va antioksidantlarning yaxshi manbaidir. Bir lahzalik taom uchun unga Dagoba Organic Chocolate Chocodrops ($ 8 va#xA0amazon.com) yoqadi. "Mening ba'zi mijozlarim muzqaymoq sumkasini muzlatgichda saqlaydilar va muzlatilgan chiplarning bir hovuchini olishadi va ular shirin narsaga intilishadi", deydi u. Agar siz konfetni afzal ko'rsangiz, Sass Germaniyaning Seitenbacher Gummi Fruit nomli brendini tavsiya qiladi. & quot; Ularning shirinligi olma va lavlagi kabi haqiqiy meva sharbatlaridan keladi, - deydi u.

Eng yaxshi hikoyalarimizni pochta qutisiga etkazish uchun   ga yoziling"Sog'lom turmush" axborot byulleteni


Diyetisyenlarning fikriga ko'ra, siz eyishingiz kerak bo'lgan 20 ta sog'lom qayta ishlangan ovqatlar

Qayta ishlangan ovqatlar tez -tez yomon rapga uchraydi, chunki ularning ko'plari shakar, natriy va yog 'bilan to'ldirilgan, ammo hamma qadoqlangan noshlar ham bir xilda yaratilmagan. Yangi va foydali ovqatlar har doim afzal bo'lsa-da, sog'lom bo'lgan ko'plab qayta ishlangan ovqatlar mavjud va siz ularni dietadan chiqarib tashlashga qaror qilsangiz, ularning sog'lig'ini yaxshilaydigan ozuqa moddalari va qulayliklarini yo'qotasiz.

Asosiysi, ovqatlanishni o'qish va ingredientlar ehtiyotkorlik bilan yoziladi va shakar, MSG va nosog'lom yog'lar kabi qizil bayroqlarga e'tibor bering. Ideal holda, siz oz miqdordagi ingredientlardan iborat qadoqlangan taomlarni iste'mol qilmoqchisiz. Misol uchun, ba'zi do'konlarda sotib olingan nonlarda ko'p miqdorda tuz va mdashmor bor, agar siz bir nechta taomni iste'mol qilsangiz, natriy tezda qo'shilishi mumkin. Aytgancha, siz qayta ishlangan ovqatni tanlashda aqlli bo'lishingiz mumkin. Dukkakli makarondan soslarga, sabzavotli gamburgerlargacha, diyetisyenlar har doim o'z oshxonalarida saqlanadigan qulay ovqatlar.

Sog'lom ovqat tayyorlash faqat oziq -ovqat do'konining perimetri bo'ylab xarid qilishni anglatadi, degan keng tarqalgan noto'g'ri tushuncha. Ammo, agar siz shunday qilsangiz, ichki yo'laklarda, shu jumladan muzlatgichda ko'p tolali non va muzlatilgan sabzavotlar va mevalarni topishingiz mumkin.

Muzlatilgan yovvoyi mersini bizga miyani himoya qiladigan bu rezavorlardan yil davomida foydalanish imkoniyatini beradi. Ular "pishib etishning eng yuqori pog'onasida" tanlanadi va ularning ozuqaviy tarkibi yangi turlarga qaraganda yaxshiroq saqlanadi, deydi Meggi Mun, MS, RD, muallif, MIND dietasi. Ko'k mevalari bo'yicha miya salomatligi bo'yicha tadqiqotlarning aksariyati antioksidantlarning xushbo'y portlashlari bo'lgan yovvoyi ko'klar ustida o'tkazilgan va u qo'shib qo'ygan, shuning uchun bu qadoqlangan mevani qazishdan qo'rqmang. Siz ba'zi muzlatilgan mevalar yangi mevalarga qaraganda arzonroq ekanligini topishingiz mumkin.

Siz ishlab chiqarish yo'lakchasida chia urug'i solingan sumkani topa olmaysiz, lekin bu sizning aravangizdagi joyga unchalik loyiq emas degani emas.

& ldquoChia urug'lari omega-3 yog 'kislotalari va kaltsiyga boy bo'lib, odamlar etarli darajada iste'mol qila olmaydilar. Bir untsiya ham tolaga boy (11 gramm) ", - deyiladi Oy. Jurnalning 2019 yilgi tadqiqotida Lanset har kuni 25-29 gramm tola iste'mol qilish uzoq umr ko'rishingizni tasdiqladi. Siz ularni smetana, qatiq yoki jo'xori uni solingan idishga qo'shishingiz mumkin, yoki hatto chia urug'idan puding tayyorlash mumkin.

Konservalangan loviya tuzni saqlash uchun tuz bilan to'ldiriladi, lekin siz ularni idishga qo'shishdan oldin suv ostida yuvib to'lashingiz mumkin. Oyning aytishicha, bu bilan natriy 40 foizga kamayadi.

& LdquoO'sha kechalarda, agar sizda bu narsa yo'q bo'lsa, konservalangan loviya - bu mening oshxonamdagi qutqaruvchi va asosiy oziq -ovqat. No'xat- mening eng sevimli o'simlik oqsillarimdan biri, va ayniqsa O'rta er dengizi va Yaqin Sharq taomlari bilan yaxshi ishlaydi,- deydi Moon. Ular tolaning ajoyib manbaiga aylanadigan o'simlik tarkibidagi oqsilni iste'mol qilishadi.

Odamlar smetana, pechene va kechqurun jo'xori uchun matcha qo'shib qo'yishadi va buning yaxshi sababi bor. Matcha - bu kukunli choy, yashil choy barglarini mayda maydalashdan olinadi, ya'ni siz butun bargdan foyda ko'rasiz. Siz oziq -ovqat do'konining choy va qahvaxonasida matcha kukunini topishingiz mumkin, va ba'zi sog'lom oziq -ovqat do'konlari ham uni olib yurishi mumkin.

& ldquoBarcha yashil choyning diqqat va xotira uchun foydasi bor, lekin yashil choy kukuni yashil choy tarkibidagi foydali birikmalarning ko'proq konsentratsiyasiga olib keladi ", - deydi Oy. Jurnaldan 49 ta odam sinovini ko'rib chiqish. Hozirgi farmatsevtika dizayni Matchada topilgan L-teanin va kofein kabi fitokimyoviy moddalar kayfiyatni, kognitiv ishlashni va aniqlikni yaxshilaydi.

Yaxshi, shuning uchun loviya makaronini ba'zilar uchun to'liq taom deb hisoblash mumkin emas, lekin kesilgan donli nonning yonida bu siz olishingiz mumkin bo'lgan eng to'yimli qadoqlangan ovqatlardan biridir. Fasolli makaron oqsil va tola tarkibida an'anaviy oq noodle va hatto butun donli navlarga qaraganda yuqori. Bundan tashqari, ular glyutensiz.

Oyning maqsadi-Banzaning nohutli makaronidir, lekin u erda loviya va donli taomlar, "Cuisine", "Barilla" va "Ancient Hosil" kabi boshqa brendlar ham bor. & ldquoBanza nohutli makaron yaxshi tuzilishga va og'izga ega bo'lib, uni tozalangan donli makaron uchun qurbonliksiz almashtiradi. Oziqlanish nuqtai nazaridan, u ikki barobar o'simlik oqsilidan (25 gramm) va tolaning to'rt barobaridan ko'p (13 gramm) standart makarondan iborat, - deydi Moon.


Qayta ishlangan oziq -ovqat va sog'liq

Qayta ishlangan ovqatlar, odatda, qayta ishlanmagan ovqatlardan past deb hisoblanadi. Ular ko'plab ingredientlarni, hatto sun'iy ranglar, lazzatlar yoki boshqa kimyoviy qo'shimchalarni o'z ichiga olgan qadoqlangan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini esga olishlari mumkin. Ko'pincha qulay yoki oldindan tayyorlangan ovqatlar deb ataladi, qayta ishlangan ovqatlar semizlik epidemiyasi va yurak xastaligi va qandli diabet kabi surunkali kasalliklar tarqalishining ko'payishiga yordam beradi. Biroq, qayta ishlangan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining ta'rifi manbaga qarab farq qiladi:

  • AQSh Qishloq xo'jaligi vazirligi (USDA) qayta ishlangan oziq -ovqat mahsulotini tabiiy holatida, ya'ni yuvish, tozalash, maydalash, kesish, kesish, isitish, pasterizatsiya qilish, oqartirish, pishirish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan har qanday qishloq xo'jaligi mahsuloti deb ta'riflaydi. , konserva, muzlatish, quritish, suvsizlantirish, aralashtirish, qadoqlash yoki ovqatni tabiiy holatidan o'zgartiradigan boshqa protseduralar. Oziq -ovqat tarkibiga konservantlar, lazzatlar, ozuqa moddalari va boshqa oziq -ovqat qo'shimchalari yoki tuz, shakar va yog'lar kabi oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarida foydalanish uchun tasdiqlangan moddalar kabi boshqa ingredientlar qo'shilishi mumkin.
  • Oziq -ovqat texnologlari instituti saqlash, filtrlash, fermentatsiya, ekstraktsiya, konsentratsiya, mikroto'lqinli pech va qadoqlash kabi qo'shimcha ishlov berish shartlarini o'z ichiga oladi. [1]

Ushbu standartlarga ko'ra, supermarketda sotiladigan deyarli barcha ovqatlar ma'lum darajada "qayta ishlangan" deb tasniflanadi. Oziq -ovqat yig'ib olinishi bilanoq yomonlasha boshlaydi va ozuqa moddalarini yo'qotadi, hatto mahsulot yo'lakchasidagi olma ham iste'molchiga sotilishidan oldin to'rt yoki undan ko'p ishlov berish bosqichidan o'tadi. Shuning uchun amalda oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlashning turli darajalarini farqlash foydali bo'ladi.

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlash turlari

Qayta ishlangan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini tasniflashning mashhur tizimi 2009 yilda NOVA tasnifi deb nomlangan. Unda oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlash darajasini tavsiflovchi to'rtta toifalar ro'yxati keltirilgan: [2,3]

Qayta ishlanmagan yoki minimal qayta ishlangan ovqatlar

Qayta ishlangan oshxona ingredientlari

Qayta ishlangan ovqatlar

Ultra qayta ishlangan ovqatlar

NOVA tizimi Jahon sog'liqni saqlash tashkiloti, Oziq -ovqat va qishloq xo'jaligi tashkiloti va Pan Amerika sog'liqni saqlash tashkiloti tomonidan tan olingan, ammo hozirda AQShda Oziq -ovqat va farmatsevtika idorasi yoki USDA tomonidan emas. NOVA ba'zi oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini tasniflashda chalkashliklarni keltirib chiqarishi uchun juda umumiy bo'lgani uchun tanqid qilindi. Masalan, qatiq bir nechta toifalarga bo'linishi mumkin: oddiy yogurt minimal darajada qayta ishlanadi, lekin qo'shilgan shirinliklar qo'shilgan mevali qatiq, qancha shirin va boshqa kimyoviy qo'shimchalar kiritilganiga qarab, qayta ishlangan yoki ultra ishlov berilgan deb belgilanishi mumkin. NOVA shuningdek, har bir toifadagi oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining to'liq ro'yxatini taqdim etmaydi, shuning uchun xaridor qaerga tushishi mumkinligini taxmin qiladi.

Qayta ishlangan oziq -ovqat zararli emasmi?

Hech shubha yo'qki, hech bo'lmaganda qayta ishlangan ovqatlar ko'pchilik oshxonalarda topiladi. Ovqat tayyorlashda ular vaqtni tejashlari mumkin, va ba'zi qayta ishlangan va boyitilgan ovqatlar muhim oziq moddalar bilan ta'minlanadi, ularni band bo'lmagan oilalarda yoki cheklangan oziq-ovqat byudjetida olish mumkin emas. Oziqlanish nuqtai nazaridan, qayta ishlangan va hatto ultra qayta ishlangan ovqatlar asosiy ozuqa moddalarini berishi mumkin. Protein kabi ba'zi ozuqa moddalari tabiiy ravishda qayta ishlash jarayonida saqlanib qoladi, B guruhi vitaminlari va temir kabi boshqa elementlar, agar ular qayta ishlash jarayonida yo'qolsa, qo'shilishi mumkin. O'rim -yig'imdan keyin tez muzlatilgan meva va sabzavotlar S vitaminining ko'p qismini saqlab qolishi mumkin.

Tarix davomida ma'lum ozuqa moddalari bilan boyitilgan ovqatlar ma'lum populyatsiyalarda etishmasligi va ular bilan bog'liq sog'liq muammolarining oldini oldi. Masalan, anemiyani oldini olish uchun temir va B guruhi vitaminlari bilan boyitilgan chaqaloq donlari, raxitning oldini olish uchun D vitamini bilan boyitilgan sut, tug'ma nuqsonlarni oldini olish uchun foliy kislotasi bilan boyitilgan bug'doy uni va buqoqni oldini olish uchun tuzga yod qo'shilgan.

Pasterizatsiya, pishirish va quritish kabi ba'zi usullar bilan ishlov berish zararli bakteriyalarning o'sishiga to'sqinlik qilishi yoki yo'q qilishi mumkin. Emulsifikatorlar kabi qo'shimchalar oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining tuzilishini saqlaydi, masalan, yong'oq yog'ini qattiq va suyuq bo'laklarga bo'linishini oldini oladi. Qayta ishlashning boshqa funktsiyalari - oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining kerakli sezuvchanlik xususiyatlarini (ta'mi, tuzilishi, xushbo'yligi, tashqi ko'rinishi) saqlaydigan mahsulotlarning buzilishini kechiktirish va to'liq ovqat tayyorlashda qulaylikni oshirish.

Ammo oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlashning ham kamchiliklari bor. Qayta ishlash darajasiga qarab, ko'plab ozuqa moddalarini yo'q qilish yoki olib tashlash mumkin. Meva, sabzavot va to'liq donlarning tashqi qatlamlarini tozalash o'simliklarning ozuqaviy moddalarini (fitokimyoviy) va tolani olib tashlashi mumkin. Oziq -ovqatlarni isitish yoki quritish ba'zi vitamin va minerallarni yo'q qilishi mumkin. Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini ishlab chiqaruvchilar yo'qolgan ozuqa moddalarining bir qismini qaytarishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, ovqatni asl shaklida qayta yaratish mumkin emas.

Agar siz dietangizga yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatni kiritishni yoki kiritmaslikni qaror qilsangiz, uning ozuqaviy tarkibini va sog'likka uzoq muddatli ta'sirini baholash foydali bo'lishi mumkin. Kaloriyalarning ozuqaviy moddalarga teng bo'lmagan yuqori nisbatini o'z ichiga olgan o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat nosog'lom deb hisoblanishi mumkin. Masalan, tadqiqotlar shakar-shirin ichimliklarni ko'p iste'mol qilish va semirish, diabet va yurak xastaliklari xavfining ortishi o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni qo'llab-quvvatlaydi. Ammo foydali ozuqa moddalarini o'z ichiga olgan ba'zi qayta ishlangan ovqatlar, masalan, zaytun moyi yoki dukkakli jo'xori, bu surunkali kasalliklarning past darajasi bilan bog'liq.

Oziq -ovqat yorlig'idagi ingredientlar ro'yxatini dekodlash

  • Ingredientlar vazniga qarab tartibda keltirilgan. Bu shuni anglatadiki, birinchi navbatda og'irligi eng ko'p bo'lgan oziq -ovqat tarkibiy qismi, eng pasti esa oxirgi ro'yxatga kiritiladi. [5]
  • Shakar va tuz kabi ba'zi ingredientlar boshqa nomlar bilan ro'yxatlanishi mumkin. Masalan, shakar uchun muqobil atamalar makkajo'xori siropi, yuqori fruktoza makkajo'xori siropi, asal, agave nektar, qamish shakar, bug'langan qamish sharbati, kokos shakar, dekstroz, malt siropi, pekmez yoki turbinado shakar. Natriyning boshqa atamalariga monosodyum glutamat yoki disodyum fosfat kiradi.
  • Agar oziq -ovqat yuqori darajada qayta ishlangan bo'lsa, unda sun'iy ranglar, lazzatlar yoki konservantlar kabi bir nechta oziq -ovqat qo'shimchalari bo'lishi mumkin. Ularning tarkibiy qismlari nomlari unchalik tanish emas. Ba'zi konservantlar mog'or va bakteriyalar o'sishini oldini olib, oziq -ovqat xavfsizligini ta'minlaydi. Boshqalar buzilishlarning yoki "off" ta'mlarning rivojlanishining oldini olishga yordam beradi. Yorliqda ko'rishingiz mumkin bo'lgan misollar:
    • Konservantlar- askorbin kislotasi, natriy benzoat, kaliy sorbat, tokoferollar
    • Emulsifikatorlar suyuq va qattiq moddalarning ajralishiga to'sqinlik qiladi - soya lesitini, monogliseridlar
    • Qalinlashtiruvchi moddalar to'qimalarni qo'shish - ksantan saqichi, pektin, karragenan, guar saqichi
    • Ranglar-sariq ranglarni qo'shish uchun sun'iy FD & ampC Yellow № 6 yoki tabiiy beta-karotin

    To'yingan yog'lar, qo'shilgan shakar va natriy kabi yuqori/ultra-qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini ishlab chiqarishda keng qo'llaniladigan ingredientlar yurak xastaligi, semirish va yuqori qon bosimiga ta'siri tufayli yomon ovqatlanish sifatiga aylandi. [6,7] Hisob-kitoblarga ko'ra, ultra-qayta ishlangan ovqatlar qo'shilgan shakarlardan olingan umumiy kaloriya miqdorining 90% ni tashkil qiladi. [4]

    • 2015 yilda Jahon sog'liqni saqlash tashkiloti qayta ishlangan go'shtni odamlarga saraton keltirib chiqaruvchi toifaga kiritdi. Ular "qayta ishlangan go'sht" ni ta'mni yaxshilash yoki saqlanishini yaxshilash uchun tuzlash, davolash, fermentatsiya, chekish yoki boshqa jarayonlar orqali o'zgartirilgan go'sht deb ta'riflashdi. Bu bayonot Xalqaro saraton tadqiqotlari agentligining 22 ta olimi ushbu mavzu bo'yicha 800 dan ortiq tadqiqotlarni baholaganidan keyin qilingan. Qayta ishlangan go'sht to'g'risidagi dalillar yo'g'on ichak saratoni uchun eng kuchli edi, keyin oshqozon saratoni. [8]
    • Hamshiralarning sog'lig'ini o'rganish va sog'liqni saqlash bo'yicha mutaxassislarning keyingi tadqiqotlari tahlili shuni ko'rsatdiki, qayta ishlangan go'sht va kartoshka chiplari kabi o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini ko'proq iste'mol qilish 4 yil davomida vazn ortishi bilan bog'liq. [9] Boshqa tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, o'ta qayta ishlangan ovqatlar qanchalik ko'p iste'mol qilinsa, dietada muhim ozuqa moddalari etishmasligi xavfi shuncha ko'p bo'ladi. NHANES kohortidagi 9,317 amerikalik ishtirokchilarning ovqatlanishini baholash shuni ko'rsatdiki, o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining yuqori miqdori qayta ishlangan uglevodlar, qo'shilgan shakar va to'yingan yog'larni ko'p iste'mol qilish bilan bog'liq. Shu bilan birga, tola, sink, kaliy, fosfor, magniy, kaltsiy va A, C, D va E vitaminlarini qabul qilish kamaygan. [10]
    • Navarra Seguimiento universiteti kohortidagi 20000 ga yaqin ispan universitet bitiruvchilari o'rtasida o'tkazilgan yana bir kuzatuvli tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatdiki, o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining yuqori iste'moli (4 porsiyadan ortiq) har qanday sababdan o'lim xavfining 62 foizga oshishiga bog'liq. (kuniga 2 portsiyadan kam). Har kuni qo'shimcha qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat uchun o'lim xavfi 18% ga oshdi. Tadqiqotchilar o'zlarining xulosalariga asoslanib, global sog'lig'ini yaxshilash uchun dietada ultra-qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining ulushini cheklaydigan va qayta ishlanmagan yoki minimal darajada qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat iste'molini rag'batlantiruvchi siyosatning muhimligini qayd etdilar. [11] Frantsiyada (NutriNet Santé) va AQShda (NHANES) o'tkazilgan boshqa kogortli tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini iste'mol qilish yuqori sababli o'lim bilan bevosita bog'liq. [12,13]
    • 2019 yilda tasodifiy nazorat ostida o'tkazilgan sinov NOVA tasnifi bo'yicha aniqlangan ultra-qayta ishlangan ovqatlar haqiqatan ham odamlarning ko'proq ovqat eyishiga sabab bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rib chiqdi. O'n erkak va o'n ayol tasodifiy ravishda ultra-qayta ishlangan dietani yoki qayta ishlanmagan dietani 14 kun davomida, so'ngra 14 kun muqobil dietada qabul qilishdi. Parhezlar kaloriya, shakar, yog ', tola va boshqa ozuqaviy moddalarga nisbatan teng edi va ishtirokchilarga xohlagancha yoki ozroq eyishga ruxsat berildi. Tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatdiki, ishtirokchilar ultra-qayta ishlangan dietada taxminan 500 kaloriya ko'proq iste'mol qilishdi, shuningdek, og'irlik qo'shishdi (taxminan 2 funt). [14] Qo'shimcha kaloriyalarning ko'p qismi uglevod va yog'lardan kelib tushgan, dietada esa natriy iste'molini ko'paytirgan. Ishtirokchilar qayta ishlanmagan dietaga o'tganda, ular kamroq kaloriya iste'mol qilishdi va ozishdi. Ishtaha bo'yicha o'tkazilgan so'rovlarga ko'ra, dietalar ochlik, to'yinganlik va qoniqish darajasida bir-biridan farq qilmagan, garchi ishtirokchilar ultra-qayta ishlangan dietada tezroq ovqatlanishga moyil bo'lishgan.

    Pastki chiziq

    Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlash - bu muzlatish yoki maydalash kabi asosiy texnologiyalardan tortib tokchaning barqarorligini ta'minlaydigan yoki ta'mini oshiradigan qo'shimchalarni qo'shishgacha bo'lgan spektr. Umumiy qoida sifatida, kundalik ratsionda qayta ishlanmagan yoki minimal darajada qayta ishlangan ovqatlarni ta'kidlash maqbuldir. Aytgancha, qayta ishlangan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlaridan foydalanish iste'molchining tanlovidir va har bir tur bilan birga keladigan ijobiy va salbiy tomonlari bor. Oziqlanish faktlari yorlig'i va ingredientlar ro'yxati qayta ishlangan ovqatni dietaga qachon kiritish kerakligini hal qilishda foydali vosita bo'lishi mumkin. Oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlashning ayrim turlari va sog'lig'ining yomonligi (ayniqsa yuqori yoki o'ta qayta ishlangan ovqatlar) bilan bog'liqligini ko'rsatuvchi dalillar mavjud. Bu assotsiatsiya asosan tarkibida shakar, ortiqcha natriy va nosog'lom yog'lar bo'lgan ultra qayta ishlangan ovqatlarga taalluqlidir.

    1. Weaver CM, Dwyer J, Fulgoni III VL, King JC, Leveille GA, MacDonald RS, Ordovas J, Schnakenberg D. Qayta ishlangan ovqatlar: ovqatlanishga qo'shgan hissasi. Amerika klinik ovqatlanish jurnali. 2014 yil 2399 (6): 1525-42.
    2. Monteiro Kaliforniya Oziqlanish va sog'liq. Muammo oziq -ovqat va oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarida emas, balki qayta ishlashda. Jamoat salomatligi uchun ovqatlanish. 2009 yil 12 may (5): 729-31.
    3. Monteiro CA, Cannon G, Moubarac JC, Levy RB, Louzada ML, Jaime PC. Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining Oziqlanish o'n yilligi, oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining NOVA tasnifi va ultra qayta ishlash muammolari. Jamoat salomatligi uchun ovqatlanish. 2018 yil 21-yanvar (1): 5-17.
    4. Steele EM, Baraldi LG, da Costa Louzada ML, Moubarac JC, Mozaffarian D, Monteiro CA. AQSh dietasida o'ta qayta ishlangan ovqatlar va qo'shilgan shakar: kesma bo'yicha milliy vakillik tadqiqotidan dalillar. BMJ ochiq. 2016 yil 16 (3) yanvar: e009892.
    5. AQSh oziq -ovqat va farmatsevtika idorasi. Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini etiketkalash bo'yicha qo'llanma: sanoat uchun ko'rsatma. 2013 yil yanvar.
    6. Tapsell LC, Neale EP, Satija A, Xu FB. Oziq -ovqatlar, ozuqa moddalari va ovqatlanish tartibi: o'zaro bog'liqlik va ovqatlanish qoidalariga ta'siri. Oziqlantirishdagi yutuqlar. 2016 yil 97-may (3): 445-54.
    7. Poti JM, Braga B, Qin B. Ultra qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini qabul qilish va semirish: sog'likka nima muhim-qayta ishlash yoki ozuqaviy tarkib? Hozirgi semirish haqida hisobotlar. 2017 yil 16-dekabr (4): 420-31.
    8. Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Mattock H, Straif K. Qizil va qayta ishlangan go'sht iste'molining kanserogenligi. Lancet onkologiyasi. 2015 yil 116 (16) dekabr: 1599-600.
    9. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Xu FB. Xun va turmush tarzining o'zgarishi va ayollar va erkaklarda uzoq muddatli vazn ortishi. Yangi Angliya tibbiyot jurnali. 2011 yil 23364 (25): 2392-404.
    10. Stil EM, Popkin BM, Swinburn B, Monteiro CA. AQShda o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarining ulushi va ovqatlanishning umumiy sifati: kesma bo'yicha milliy vakillik tadqiqotidan dalillar. Aholi salomatligi ko'rsatkichlari. 2017 yil 15 -dekabr (1): 6.
    11. Rico-Campa A, Martinez-Gonsales MA, Alvarez-Alvares I, de Deus Mendonça R, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Gomes-Donoso C, Bes-Rastrollo M. Ultra qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini iste'mol qilish va ularning barchasi o'limga olib keladi: Quyoshdan keyingi kohort tadqiqotlari. BMJ. 2019 yil 29 -may: 1949 yil.
    12. Schnabel L, Kesse-Guyot E, Alles B, Touvier M, Srour B, Hercberg S, Buscail C, Julia C. Frantsiyadagi o'rta yoshli kattalar orasida o'ta ishlov berilgan oziq-ovqat iste'moli va o'lim xavfi o'rtasidagi assotsiatsiya. JAMA ichki kasalliklar. 2019 yil 11 fevral.
    13. Kim X, Xu EA, Rebholz CM. AQShda o'ta qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini iste'mol qilish va o'lim: sog'liqni saqlash va ovqatlanish bo'yicha uchinchi milliy tadqiqot natijalari (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Jamoat salomatligi uchun ovqatlanish. 2019 yil 21 fevral: 1-9.
    14. Hall KD, Ayuketah A, Brychta R, Cai H, Cassimatis T, Chen KY, Chung ST, Costa E, Courville A, Darcey V, Fletcher LA. Ultra-qayta ishlangan dietalar ortiqcha kaloriya iste'mol qilishiga va vazn ortishiga olib keladi: statsionar sharoitda randomizatsiyalangan nazorat ostida oziq-ovqat iste'mol qilish. Hujayra metabolizmi. 2019 yil 16 may.

    Foydalanish shartlari

    Ushbu veb -sayt mazmuni ta'lim maqsadlari uchun mo'ljallangan va shaxsiy tibbiy maslahat berish uchun mo'ljallanmagan. Agar sizda biron bir savol bo'lsa, siz shifokor yoki boshqa malakali tibbiy yordam ko'rsatuvchi bilan maslahatlashishingiz kerak. Hech qachon professional veb -sayt tavsiyalarini e'tiborsiz qoldirmang yoki ushbu veb -saytda o'qiganingiz uchun uni kechiktirmang. Oziqlanish manbasi hech qanday mahsulotni tavsiya qilmaydi va tasdiqlamaydi.


    Muhokama

    Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini qayta ishlash ko'lami va maqsadiga qarab, yangi o'ttiz o'n yil mobaynida Braziliya poytaxtida to'plangan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini sotib olish to'g'risidagi ma'lumotlarning qo'llanilishi shuni ko'rsatadiki, qayta ishlanmagan yoki minimal darajada qayta ishlangan (1 -guruh) va qayta ishlangan ovqatlar iste'mol qilinadi. oshpazlik ingredientlari (2-guruh) doimiy ravishda tayyor yoki isitishga tayyor ultra-qayta ishlangan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini iste'mol qilish bilan almashtirildi va almashtirilmoqda (3-guruh). Bu past va yuqori daromadli guruhlarda sodir bo'ldi. Oxirgi 2002-3 yillarda o'tkazilgan so'rovda 3-guruh oziq-ovqatlari metropoliten braziliyalik uy xo'jaliklari tomonidan sotib olingan energiyaning to'rtdan biridan ko'pini va yuqori daromadli kvintil tomonidan sotib olingan mahsulotlarning uchdan bir qismini tashkil etdi.

    Tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, faqat 3-guruhdagi oddiy ovqatlar bilan tayyorlangan gipotetik taom, odatdagi 1 va 2-guruhli ovqatlar bilan taqqoslaganda, shakarning uchdan bir qismiga, to'rtdan bir qismiga to'yingan yog 'va natriyga ega bo'ladi. , tolalar tarkibining yarmidan kami va energiya zichligining uchdan ikki qismi. Faqat 3 -guruh mahsulotlari bilan tayyorlangan taom shakar qo'shilishi, natriy iste'moli va energiya zichligi uchun tavsiya etilgan yuqori chegaralardan ancha oshadi, to'yingan yog'larni qabul qilishning yuqori chegarasiga yaqin va u tolada etarli emas (2, 3). Faqat 1 -guruh va 2 -guruh mahsulotlari bilan tayyorlangan taom shakar, natriy va energiya zichligi uchun yuqori chegaralardan past bo'ladi va to'yingan yog 'va tolani iste'mol qilish uchun etarli bo'ladi (2, 3).

    Cheklovlar

    Ushbu tadqiqotda cheklovlar mavjud. U parhez emas, balki uy ovqatlari mavjudligini hisobga oladi. Bu juda foydali, chunki uni dietalarga tatbiq etish mumkin. Ikkita cheklov - bu isrof qilingan oziq -ovqat va uydan tashqarida iste'mol qilingan taomlar hisobga olinmaydi.

    Oziq -ovqat miqdori birinchi so'rovda xarajatlar va o'rtacha xarajatlardan kelib chiqqanligi va ikkinchi va uchinchi so'rovlarda to'g'ridan -to'g'ri baholanganligi birinchi davrga qaraganda ikkinchi davrda (1995–6 - 2002–3) aniqlangan vaqt tendentsiyalarini ishonchli qiladi. (1987–8 - 1995–6). Qanday bo'lmasin, 3 -guruh oziq -ovqat ulushining o'sishi ikki davrda kuzatilgan.

    Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining mavjudligi to'g'risidagi ma'lumotlardan foydalangan holda, parhezga nisbatan xato manbai shundaki, qovurilganidan keyin tashlanadigan o'simlik yog'lari (2 -guruh) va har qanday yangi va tez buziladigan oziq -ovqat (1 -guruh) bo'lishi mumkin. boshqalarga qaraganda ko'proq isrof qilinadi. Ikkinchisi, ehtimol, muhimroqdir. Many if not most foods consumed outside the home, such as soft drinks and sweet and also savoury snacks, are Group 3 products. Taking into account the reduction in total purchased energy per person per day seen across the three surveys, which is likely to indicate a corresponding increase in consumption outside the home, it is practically certain that the replacement of Group 1 and Group 2 foods by Group 3 food products in Brazil has been substantially higher than we have estimated.

    Comparisons

    Household-level studies from economically developing economies also indicate increasing consumption of selected Group 3 food products. In Mexico, consumption of sweetened soft drinks more than doubled among adolescents between 1999 and 2006, and tripled for adult women ( Reference Barquera, Hernandez-Barrera and Tolentino 15 ) . An increase of Group 3 food products has also been reported in Santiago, Chile between 1988 and 1997, notably of ‘breakfast cereals’, pastries and baked goods, processed dairy products, beverages and juices, dressings and mayonnaise, and pre-cooked meals ( Reference Crovetto and Uauy 16 ) .

    In general, as more disposable income becomes available, the penetration of ultra-processed foods increases. Analysis of data collected by the market research organization Euromonitor shows that as national income increases, the share of retail sales of ultra-processed food products, such as ready meals and breakfast cereals, correspondingly increases, while the share of minimally processed foods, such as dried foods (mostly grains), and processed culinary ingredients, such as oils and fats, declines ( Reference Gehlhar and Regmi 4 ) .

    The Euromonitor data also show an explosive growth in the retail sales of ready meals and breakfast cereals, particularly in middle-income developing countries. In Brazil, between 1998 and 2003, the average annual growth rate for ready meals was 17·3 % and for cereal breakfasts was 8·9 %.

    The enormous growth potential for Group 3 food products in Brazil, and other lower-income countries, becomes evident when contrasted with their contribution to the food supplies of higher-income countries. For instance, breads, cakes, pastries, confectionery, biscuits, processed meats, cheeses and soft drinks, taken together, amounted to 45·3 % of the total energy purchased by families in the UK in 2008 ( 17 ) , a value twice as high as the 19·1 % for the same products in 2002–3 in Brazil. This dominance of Group 3 products in the diet is even more pronounced in the USA, where the five most commonly consumed foods are all Group 3 ultra-processed food products: ‘regular’ sugary soft drinks, cakes and pastries, burgers, pizza and potato chips ( Reference Block 18 ) .

    It is likely that the general increase in the consumption of these ultra-processed products in Brazil will have continued, given the continuous increases of purchasing power of all income groups after 2003 ( Reference Neri 19 ) . This will be testable when data from the new national household budget survey, conducted in 2008–9, become available.

    Human health significance

    What is the significance of the increased consumption of ultra-processed food products for health? Causal relationships between consumption of Group 3 food products and health have been indicated or established only for some products.

    Five systematic reviews have now concluded that there is an association between soft drink intake and increased energy intake, excess body weight and diabetes ( Reference Bachman, Baranowski and Nicklas 20 – 24 ) . Evidence on ‘fast’ foods and snacks and obesity points the same way, but so far is less conclusive ( 24 ) .

    A recent comprehensive report concludes that the evidence for a causal relationship between intake of processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing ( 24 ) . This is particularly significant given the small number of studies that separate out processed meats as a category distinct from fresh meat. It is often assumed that consumption of all meat is increasing, whereas the study presented in the current paper shows that, in Brazil at least, the only meat whose consumption is rising is processed meat. Studies on meat consumption need to separate trends for fresh and for processed meat ( Reference Popkin 25 ) .

    It is not yet possible to estimate or predict the impact of increased consumption of ultra-processed food products, taken all together, on human health. This is because as yet there are no studies relating ultra-processed foods as a group with health outcomes. It is high time that such studies were undertaken. These need not be complex they can simply involve re-examination of existing data. In the meantime, the known high energy density of food products in Group 3 and their negative overall nutrient profile, both confirmed by our exercise with ‘extreme’ food baskets, indicate it is safe to say that increased consumption of these ultra-processed products is increasing the risk and incidence of obesity and of other nutrition-related chronic diseases ( Reference Astrup, Dyerberg and Selleck 26 ) .

    Discussion on the effects of ultra-processed products on human health and the risk of disease almost always focuses on the nutrients in such products. As we have stated elsewhere ( Reference Monteiro 1 , Reference Monteiro 27 ) , while this approach is important it is narrow, and neglects or overlooks other factors likely to be at least as important as nutrient profiles.

    Many ultra-processed food products are accurately termed ‘fast’ foods or ‘convenience’ foods. Many have long or very long shelf-lives, often because they are relatively devoid of perishable nutrients, or are even practically imperishable, in contrast to all fresh foods. Ultra-processed foods are also typically sold ready-to-heat or ready-to-eat, in contrast to most fresh foods that need to be prepared and cooked. The problem is that the convenience and rapidity associated with these products favour patterns of consumption known to harm the mechanisms that regulate energy balance, which therefore leads to excess eating and obesity. Such unhealthy eating patterns include snacking instead of regular meals, eating while watching television and consuming a lot of energy in liquid form ( Reference De Graaf 28 – Reference Mattes 30 ) . These behaviours are all provoked and amplified by aggressive advertising and marketing of branded Group 3 products, many of which are produced by transnational and other very big manufacturers and caterers.

    Food and drink manufacturing, catering and allied industries concentrate their marketing investments on ‘value-added’ ultra-processed products, such as sugared breakfast cereals, burgers, sweet and savoury snacks, and soft drinks, and not on minimally processed foods and also not on oils, flours and sugar used in homes as culinary ingredients. Heavily marketed branded products are typically made up from the cheapest oils, starches and sugars available, whose price to the manufacturers is often further reduced by government subsidies. This, and the endless opportunities to formulate ‘new’ hyper-palatable Group 3 products using sophisticated combinations of cosmetic and other additives, explain why the industry concentrates its marketing investments on these products ( Reference Monteiro 1 ) .

    In modern societies, food accessibility and food advertisement are the key environmental cues which trigger automatic and uncontrollable responses leading to excess eating and obesity. The idea that eating and drinking behaviours are simply a matter of conscious choice that can be educated is fundamentally wrong ( Reference Cohen 31 ) .

    Wider significance

    Increased production and consumption of ultra-processed Group 3 products also can have negative social, cultural, environmental and other impacts. Thus, as the intensity of food processing increases, typically so also does the requirement for energy inputs, directly in the processing itself and indirectly in packaging and transportation ( Reference Beauman, Cannon and Elmadfa 32 , Reference Roberts 33 ) . Further, the replacement of meals prepared at home by uniform branded ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat dishes, snacks and soft drinks results in the weakening of traditional food cultures, the loss of culinary diversity and the decline of family life, among very many other adverse effects ( Reference Contreras Hernández and Gracia Arnáiz 34 ) .


    Food frequency questionnaire

    Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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    Mackay S, Vandevijvere S, Xie P, Lee A, Swinburn B. Paying for convenience: comparing the cost of takeaway meals with their healthier home-cooked counterparts in New Zealand. Public Health Nutr. 201720(13):2269–76. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017000805.


    Kirish

    Increasing policy attention has focused on added sugars, including by the WHO,1 the UK National Health System,2 the Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation,3 the American Heart Association (AHA)4 and the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (USDGAC).5

    These reports concluded that a high intake of added sugars increases the risk of weight gain,1 , 4 , 5 excess body weight5 and obesity3 , 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus3 , 5 higher serum triglycerides5 and high blood cholesterol3 higher blood pressure5 and hypertension5 stroke3 , 5 coronary heart disease3 , 5 cancer3 and dental caries.1 , 3 , 5 Moreover, foods higher in added sugars are often a source of empty calories with minimum essential nutrients or dietary fibre,6–8 which displace more nutrient-dense foods9 and lead, in turn, to simultaneously overfed and undernourished individuals.

    All reports recommended limiting intake of added sugars.1 , 3–5 In the USA, the USDGAC recommended limiting added sugars to no more than 10% of total calories. This is a challenge, as recent consumption of added sugars in the USA amounted to almost 15% of total calories in 2005–2010.10 , 11

    To design and implement effective measures to reduce added sugars, their dietary sources must be clearly identified. Added sugars can be consumed either as ingredients of dishes or drinks prepared from scratch by consumers or a cook, or as ingredients of food products manufactured by the food industry. According to market disappearance data from 2014, more than three-quarters of the sugar and high fructose corn syrup available for human consumption in the USA were used by the food industry.12 This suggests that food products manufactured by the industry could have an important role in the excess added sugars consumption in the USA. However, to assess this role, it is essential to consider the contribution of manufactured food products to both total energy intake and the energy intake from added sugars, and, more relevantly, to quantify the relationship between their consumption and the total dietary content of added sugars. To address these questions, we performed an investigation utilising the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).


    INDUSTRIAL SOUPS

    Most commercial soup bases and sauces contain artificial meat-like flavors that mimic those we used to get from natural, gelatin-rich broth. These kinds of short cuts mean that consumers are shortchanged. When the homemade stocks were pushed out by the cheap substitutes, an important source of minerals disappeared from the American diet. The thickening effects of gelatin could be mimicked with emulsifiers, but, of course, the health benefits were lost. Gelatin is a very healthy thing to have in your diet. It helps you digest proteins properly and is supportive of digestive health overall.

    Research on gelatin and natural broths came to an end in the 1950s when food companies discovered how to induce maillard reactions–the process of creating flavor compounds by mixing reduced sugars and amino acids under increased temperatures–and produce meat-like flavors in the laboratory. In a General Foods Company report issued in 1947, chemists predicted that almost all natural flavors would soon be chemically synthesized. 15 Following the Second World War, American food companies discovered monosodium glutamate, a food ingredient the Japanese had invented in 1908 to enhance food flavors, including meat-like flavors. Humans actually have receptors on the tongue for glutamate—it is the protein in food that the human body recognizes as meat–but the glutamate in MSG has a different configuration, which cannot be assimilated properly by the body. Any protein can be hydrolyzed (broken down into its component amino acids) to produce a base containing MSG. When the industry learned how to synthesize the flavor of meat in the laboratory, using inexpensive proteins from grains and legumes, the door was opened to a flood of new products, including boullion cubes, dehydrated soup mixes, sauce mixes, TV dinners, and condiments with a meaty taste.

    The fast food industry could not exist without MSG and artificial meat flavors, which beguile the consumer into eating bland and tasteless food. The sauces in many commercially processed foods contain MSG, water, thickeners, emulsifiers and caramel coloring. Your tongue is tricked into thinking that you are consuming something nutritious, when in fact it is getting nothing at all except some very toxic substances. Even dressings, Worcestershire sauce, rice mixes, flavored tofu, and many meat products have MSG in them. Almost all canned soups and stews contain MSG, and the “hydrolyzed protein” bases often contain MSG in very large amounts.

    So-called homemade soups in most restaurants are usually made by mixing water with a powdered soup base made of hydrolyzed protein and artificial flavors, and then adding chopped vegetables and other ingredients. Even things like lobster bisque and fish sauces in most seafood restaurants are prepared using these powdered bases full of artificial flavors.

    The industry even thinks it is too costly to just use a little onion and garlic for flavoring–they use artificial garlic and onion flavors instead. It’s all profit based with no thought for the health of the consumer.

    Unfortunately, most of the processed vegetarian foods are loaded with these flavorings, as well. The list of ingredients in vegetarian hamburgers, hot dogs, bacon, baloney, etc., may include hydrolyzed protein and “natural” flavors, all sources of MSG. Soy foods are loaded with MSG.

    Food manufacturers get around the labeling requirements by putting MSG in the spice mixes if the mix is less than fifty percent MSG, they don’t have to indicate MSG on the label. You may have noticed that the phrase “No MSG” has actually disappeared. The industry doesn’t use it anymore because they found out that there was MSG in all the spice mixes even Bragg’s amino acids had to take “No MSG” off the label.


    Are They Really Healthy?

    Lean Cuisine products are better than a lot of lunch and dinners out there, like fast food, for example. When you compare a serving of Lean Cuisine Pepperoni Pizza to a slice of pepperoni pizza from Pizza Hut, you'll find that the frozen meal is the healthier option.

    The single serving of Lean Cuisine pizza (6 ounces or 170 grams) is 410 calories with 10 grams of fat, 3 grams of fiber, 21 grams of protein, 59 grams of carbohydrates and 870 milligrams of sodium.

    One slice of a large hand-tossed pepperoni pizza weighs 123 grams, making it slightly smaller than the Lean Cuisine. It contains 330 calories, 14 grams of fat, 15 grams of protein, 38 grams of carbohydrates and 990 milligrams of sodium.

    However, the majority of these meals fall between 250 and 300 calories which doesn't satisfy the recommended calorie intake for one meal. While there are vegetables, there needs to be more of them to qualify as a serving. Many of the meals are made with refined pasta, so that's why it's important to go beyond Lean Cuisine nutrition and look closely at the ingredient list before deciding which ones to purchase.

    A May 2019 small-scale study with 20 participants conducted by researchers at the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), was the first of its kind to study the effects of processed foods. They discovered people who eat ultra processed foods eat more calories and gained more weight compared to those who ate a minimally processed diet.

    If you're cutting back calories to lose weight, some of the meals provide enough calories to qualify as a meal. The refined ingredients and sodium are enough reason to avoid them when and where possible. Opt for whole foods for the best nutrition.


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