Kokteyl retseptlari, spirtli ichimliklar va mahalliy barlar

Chili qalampir qurollari poygasi davom etmoqda

Chili qalampir qurollari poygasi davom etmoqda


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So'nggi bir necha yil davomida butun dunyodan chili yetishtiruvchilari eng issiq chili qalampirini etishtirish uchun kurashishdi. Endi, raqobat har qachongidan ham halokatli, chunki issiqlik 14 dan oshdi million Oxirgi uch yil ichida Skovil birliklari, Wall Street Journal hisobotlar.

2010 yilda, Jerald Fowler Naga Viper qalampir 1,382 million Scoville issiqlik birligi uchun o'lchandi va Ginnesning rekordlar kitobida o'stirilgan eng issiq qalampir deb nomlandi. Naga Viperning tojidan to'rt oy o'tgach, chili yetishtiruvchisi Aleks de Vit va uning ukasi Trinidad Scorpion Butch T.ni 1.464 million Scovilles bilan yaratdilar va natijada unvonni o'g'irlashdi.

Butch T. hozirgi qalampirni eng issiq qalampir deb bilsa -da, bundan ham kuchli zotlar yaratilgan. Avstraliyaning Morisset shahridagi Chilli fabrikasiga ega bo'lgan Aleks va Marsel de Vit Ginnesga Butch T. qalampirining yanada kuchli shaklini topshirishni rejalashtirmoqda; Nyu -Meksiko shtati universitetining Chili qalampir instituti rahbari Pol Bosland o'zining yangi Trinidad Moruga Chayoni bilan 2 million Scovillesni sindirishini da'vo qildi; Doktor Byorniyumning issiq sousli emporiumidan Nik Mur o'zining psixologik sarumini ochmoqchi, uning tarkibida 6,4 million skovil bor; va Nyu -Jersi shtati tadbirkor Bler Lazar o'zining 16 millionlik zaxirasini toza kapsaitsin kristallari bilan chiqarib yubordi. Eng achchiq soslar ro'yxati bu yil.

U erda qalampir va soslar borligini hisobga olsak, bu soslarni iste'mol qilish juda xavfli bo'lishi ajablanarli emas.

"800,000 Scoville birliklaridan so'ng, ehtiyot bo'lish kerak", dedi Aleks de Vit Jurnalga. "Siz buning oqibatlarini to'laysiz - siz bir necha soat erga tushasiz. Odamlarni kasalxonaga yotqizishga majbur qildik ”.

Bu kamdan -kam uchraydigan bo'lsa -da, chili qalampiri odamlarni kasalxonaga yotqizdi. 2012 yilda, oshpaz Orif Ali u restoranining "olovli tovuq qanotlarini" arvohli qalampir sousi bilan sinab ko'rganida qulab tushdi va 100 dan ortiq Fed sobiq ishchilari bir chili qalampir ekstrakti (kapsaitsin) teshilganidan keyin kasalxonaga yotqizilgan. Chili ekstrakti terini kuydirishi mumkin, shuning uchun chili yetishtiruvchilari qalampirni himoya bilan davolashga ishonch hosil qilishadi.

Pol Bosland "Wall Street Journal" ga bergan intervyusida: "Siz ularni ochganingizdan so'ng, juda ehtiyot bo'lishingiz kerak." "Biz deyarli hazmat kostyumini kiydik - to'la tana kiyimlari, nafas olish apparati va bosh kiyim."

Garchi bu ba'zilar uchun xavfli bo'lishi mumkin va ishlov berishni himoya qilishni talab qilsa -da, chili qalampiri tobora qiziydi. Endi, 16 milliondan keyin Skovill, raqobat davom etmoqda, chunki biz navbatdagi kuydiruvchi qalampirning diqqat markaziga tushishini kutamiz.

Skyler Bouchard Daily Meal uchun kichik yozuvchi. Uni Twitter -da kuzatib boring @shohruh_official


Chili qalampir oddiy siropi va#8211 kokteyllaringizga shirin va achchiq qo'shimchalar

Bu tez, oson va achchiq oddiy sirop sizning kokteylingizga ajoyib qo'shimcha bo'ladi! Menga hech bo'lmaganda bitta bo'lak issiq sous yoqadi, shuning uchun ichimga ozgina zarba berishda nima xato bo'lishi mumkin? Men sos bu deganimda siz kutganingiz emasmi?

Mening ichimimda qalampir borligi sababli, texnik jihatdan sos - bu mening sabzavotlarim va hellip Bu erda & rsquos - mening fikrlash poezdim boshlandi. 2013 yilda Kentukki derbisiga borish baxtiga muyassar bo'lganimda, men ozgina tepgan holda ichimlik qidirayotgan edim.

Mana biz derbida! Shlyapamga qarang! [/Caption]

Agar siz & rsquod mening maslahatlarim va fokuslarimni, pishirish bo'yicha muhim ma'lumotlarni va shunga o'xshash retsept g'oyalarini o'tkazib yubormasangiz va shu mazali retseptga o'tsangiz. sahifaning pastki qismiga o'ting, u erda siz bosma retsept kartasini topishingiz mumkin.

Chili qalampirining oddiy siropi qanday paydo bo'ldi?

Men hali ham aroq klyukva ichaman, lekin yaqinda men klyukva tayyorlashimga qo'shadigan habanero va ohak siropini topdim. Kentukki derbisida men barmendan qo'lida shunday sirop bormi, deb so'radim.

U yo'q dedi, lekin barning orqasida Tabasko borligini aytdi. Nega buni sinab ko'rmaysiz, ayniqsa, agar u menga yoqmasa, meni yangisini yasashini va'da qilgani uchun, chunki menda yo'qotadigan hech narsa yo'q edi.

U ohak bilan stakanimga bir nechta chiziq tashladi va men ketdim. Bu bir necha tomchi kunni (men DERBYda bo'lganimdan va otlardan bir necha fut narida) tashqari, bu mening eng sevimli ichimlikim bo'lib chiqdi.

Oaks Lily kokteylidan tashqari, men u erda bir necha marta tashladim. O'shandan beri men barcha ichimliklarimni tepib yubordim. Menimcha, bu har bir ingredientning ta'mini ochadi. Bu ozgina zerikarli va ovqat yozuvchi bo'lib tuyuldi, lekin bu haqiqat.

Bundan tashqari, achchiq ovqatlar sizning metabolizmingiz uchun juda yaxshi ekanligini eshitaman, shuning uchun agar men bir nechta ichimlikni qaytarib yuborsam, metabolizmim o'sha kaloriyalarni yo'q qilish uchun ko'proq vaqt ishlashini xohlayman.

Bu xabarda sheriklik havolalari bo'lishi mumkin. Amazon Associate sifatida men malakali xaridlardan daromad olaman. Mening oshkor qilish siyosatimni o'qingBu yerga.

Chili qalampirini qanday oddiy sirop qilishim mumkin?

Oddiy siropning asosiy retsepti - bu shakar va suvning bir qismi. Suvni qaynatib oling va shakarni eritib oling. Juda oddiy, to'g'rimi? Shuning uchun men uni sotib olishni yomon ko'raman, lekin men Habaneroni ko'rganimda, buning uchun pul to'ladim. Ko'p narsalarni boshdan kechirganimdan so'ng, men o'zimni ishlab chiqarishni boshlashim kerak edi.

Atirlarni, o'tlarni va sitrusni oddiy siropga quyish ham oson, buning uchun ozgina qo'shimcha vaqt kerak bo'ladi.

Men Habanero qalampirini olib kelmoqchi emas edim, chunki men kontaktlarni kiyardim va barmoqlarimga achchiq qalampir sharbati tushdi va ko'zlarimdagi og'riq haqida hech narsa demaslik uchun kontakt linzalarini buzib tashladim.

Men ozgina tammer bilan bordim va chili qalampirini oddiy sirop qilish uchun serrano va jalapeno qalampirining aralashmasidan foydalandim. Faqat maydalang va oddiy siropga qo'shing. Issiq siropda 10-15 daqiqa tursin, keyin olib tashlang.

Ko'proq ichki maslahatlar va hiyla -nayranglar va sahna ortidagi samimiy qarashlar uchun meni ijtimoiy tarmoqlarda kuzatib boring! Pinterest, Facebook, Instagram va Twitter -dan foydalanishni tekshiring (ha, odamlar hali ham Twitter, LOL -dan foydalanadilar!)

Bizning axborot byulletenimizdagi retseptlar, maslahatlar va hiyla -nayranglar va sahna ortidagi ma'lumotlarga erta kirish uchun ro'yxatdan o'ting! Bu BEPUL va sizga SPAM yubormaslikka va'da beramiz. Bizga qo'shilish uchun shu erni bosing!

Qalampirni olib tashlash siropda ozgina issiqlikni qoldiradi, lekin men uni biroz kuchliroq qilishni afzal ko'raman, shuning uchun qalampirni siropda saqladim va hamma narsani pyure qilib qo'ydim. Qalampir urug'ini to'kib tashlaganingizdan so'ng, siropni bir necha hafta davomida oziq -ovqat xavfsiz idishda saqlashingiz mumkin.

Qalampirni pyure qilish siropga och yashil rang beradi, agar siz ularni olib tashlasangiz, shaffof siropda bir oz issiqlik qoladi. Qalampir qalampiri sizning kokteylingizga pulpa kabi tuzilishni beradi, shuning uchun agar sizga yoqsa, men hammasini aralashtirishni maslahat beraman. Katta yuring yoki uyga boring!

Agar siz libatingizga boshqa darajani qo'shmoqchi bo'lsangiz, bu oddiy qalampir siropi aynan shunday qiladi.


Keling, oziq -ovqat bilan gaplashaylik: Hammasi chili qalampiri haqida

AUDREY VILSONdan olingan fotosurat Chili qalampir daraxti qizil chili bilan to'ldirilgan.

Chili qalampiri butun dunyodagi ko'plab taomlarning ajralmas qismi hisoblanadi.

REKLAMA

Portugal va ispan kashfiyotchilari va dengizchilari sayohatlarida chili qalampirini olib kelishgan va ular sayohat qilgan ko'plab mamlakatlar bilan tanishtirishgan. Aynan 1492 yilda Kristofer Kolumb Ispaniyadan qora qalampirni qidirish uchun Osiyoga yangi yo'lni izlashga jo'nab ketdi. Ammo buning o'rniga u hind, xitoy va tay taomlarida olovli ta'mga aylangan chili qalampirini topdi.

Dunyo bo'ylab ko'plab kambag'al odamlar uchun chili ko'plab iqlim sharoitida o'sadigan ziravorlar etishtirishning arzon va oson usuli edi va ozgina lazzatlanish Osiyo va G'arbiy Afrikaning kambag'al joylarida kutib olindi. Chili qalampirining yana bir jihati shundaki, bir marta iste'mol qilinganda, hind oshpaz Madxur Jaffrining so'zlariga ko'ra, u balandlikni beradi, orqaga qaytish yo'q. Bu ishtiyoqqa aylanadi. Chili - bu o'zgarish urug'i emas, balki fath etuvchi, yoki undan ham yaxshiroq, ustiruvchi. & Rdquo

Columbus va rsquo birinchi sayohatidan 30 yil o'tgach, Portugaliyaning Goa (Hindiston) aholi punktida kamida uch xil chili o'simliklari o'sdi. Bu chili, ehtimol, Braziliyadan Lissabon, Portugal orqali kelgan va qora murch o'rniga ishlatilgan.

Portugaliyaliklar qisqa vaqt ichida Tailandda bo'lishdi va Tailand xalqini nasroniylikka aylantira olishmadi, lekin ular Tayland taomlarini tayyorlash usulini abadiy o'zgartira olishdi. Siz chili yong'inlari kabi Tailand, Indoneziya, Tibet, Xitoy va Osiyoning qolgan qismiga tarqaldi deyishingiz mumkin.

Menga qiziq bo'lgan narsa shundaki, siz yapon taomlari haqida o'ylaganingizda, chili qalampiri haqida o'ylamaysiz, aksincha, soya sousi yoki miso bilan xushbo'y ovqatlar haqida. Biroq, yaponlarda ziravorlar bor, shichimi togarashi, etti rangli chili qalampir, menyuda noodle bo'lsa, odatda ziravorlar stolida.

Biolog Pol Sherman va uning hamkasbi Jennifer Billingsning Cornell universitetida o'tkazilgan tadqiqotida qalampir tarkibidagi kapsaitsin Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria va staf infektsiyasini keltirib chiqaradigan mikrob kabi oziq -ovqat zaharlanishiga olib keladigan bakteriyalar o'sishini inhibe qilishi aniqlandi. Ular butun dunyo bo'ylab chili qalampiridan foydalanilgan minglab retseptlarni tekshirganda, chili qalampiri issiq iqlim sharoitida ko'proq ishlatilganligini aniqladilar, chunki ovqatlar salqin iqlimdagidan ko'ra yomonroq bo'ladi.

Sherman va Jefri Xash tomonidan o'tkazilgan yana bir tadqiqotda go'sht retseptlarini sabzavotli retseptlar bilan solishtirganda, & ldquomeat bakteriyalar o'sishini rag'batlantirish uchun to'g'ri pH va to'g'ri ozuqa moddalariga ega ekanligi aniqlandi. Sabzavotlar odatda tsellyuloza hujayrali devorlari va ular tarkibidagi kimyoviy moddalar ta'sirida buzilishdan himoyalanadi. Agar gipoteza to'g'ri bo'lsa, ziravorlar sabzavot retseptlariga qaraganda go'sht retseptlarida ko'proq ishlatiladi. & Rdquo

Oshqozon osti bezini bezovta qiladigan issiq ovqatlar emas, balki bakteriya chaqiradi Helicobacter pylori. Bu bakteriyalar oshqozon shilliq qavatining yallig'lanishini qo'zg'atadi va 1997 yilda Toronto universiteti tomonidan o'tkazilgan tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatdiki, kapsaitsin o'sishni inhibe qiladi. H. pylori. Boshqa tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, achchiq qalampir oshqozon shilliq qavatini yopadigan qo'shimcha shilimshiqni chiqarib, oshqozonni himoya qilishi mumkin.

Chili qalampiri antioksidant va A va C vitaminlariga boy bo'lgani uchun, G'arbiy Virjiniya universiteti xodimi Piter Gannettning aytishicha, tajribalar shuni ko'rsatdiki, kapsaitsin oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarida tez-tez uchraydigan, nitrozaminlar va polisiklik aromatik birikmalar kabi saraton kasalligini keltirib chiqarishi mumkin.

Janubiy Koreyadagi Xangyang universiteti kolleji tadqiqotchilari tomonidan o'tkazilgan yana bir tadqiqot, karamdan tayyorlangan Baiechu kimchi iste'molining oshishi bilan oshqozon saratoni xavfining kamayishini aniqladi. Ammo kimchi tuzlangan turpdan yasalganida, ehtimol, chili qalampir emas, balki tuz sababchi bo'lishi mumkin edi.

Iyul oyining boshida hakamlar hay'ati 30 yil davom etgan sheriklikdan so'ng, mashhur sriracha achchiq sosini ishlab chiqaruvchi Huy Fong Foods Inc.ga jalapeno qalampiri etkazib beruvchisi bo'lgan Underwood Ranches mukofotini 23,3 mln. 2016 yilda Xuy Fong Underwood Ranches kompaniyasidan ishlab chiqaruvchi da'vo qilgan 1 million dollardan ko'proq pulni qaytarib berishni talab qilganida, ishlar buzildi. 1867 yildan beri Ventura okrugida ishlayotgan Underwood Ranches, Xuy Fong uchun qalampir etishtirishga bag'ishlangan 1700 gektar maydonga ega edi. Ular Xuy Fongga qalampir etkazib berishni to'xtatganlarida, ular 45 ishchini ishdan bo'shatishga majbur bo'lishdi va bir paytlar Xuy Fong qalampirlari o'sgan piyoz, shilantro, reyhan va boshqa ekinlarni etishtirishni boshlashdi.

Underwood Ranches hozirda sriracha sousini o'z ichiga olgan soslar qatoriga ega.

Nyu -Meksiko shtatida Xatch vodiysi hududida o'stiriladigan va yig'iladigan Hatch ismli chili qalampiri bor. Ular aslida 20 -asrning 20 -yillarida Nyu -Meksiko universitetining Chili institutida ishlab chiqilgan oddiy meksikalik yashil chilining navidir. Hatto Mehnat kuni dam olish kunlari Chilining Xatch festivali bo'lib, 30 ming odamni 2000 kishilik kichik shaharchaga jalb qiladi.

Xatch qalampirining ko'p navlari bor: NuMex BigJim, NuMex Sandia, NuMex Jo E. Parker, Nyu-Meksiko 6-4, NuMex Heritage 6-4, NuMex Heritage Big Jim Barker Extra Hot va NeMex R Naky. Bu navlarning barchasi bilan Skovil issiqlik birligi 1000 dan 8000 SHU gacha.

Bu qalampir tuproqli ta'mga ega, bir oz ko'proq tishlangan. Ularni qizil mo''tadil issiqlikka qadar pishirish.


Topikal kapsaitsinning foydalari

Bir qator dastlabki tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, topikal kapsaitsin sog'liq uchun turli xil foyda keltirishi mumkin. Mana, mavjud tadqiqot natijalariga qarang.

Surunkali neyropatik og'riq

2017 yilgi sharhda tadqiqotchilar ilgari e'lon qilingan sakkizta klinik sinovni o'lchashdi. Surunkali neyropatik og'riqlar (shikastlanish yoki kasallikdan kelib chiqqan nervlarning shikastlanishi natijasida kelib chiqqan og'riq) quyidagi holatlarda yuqori konsentratsiyali kapsaitsin patchining samaradorligini tekshirishda 2,488 ishtirokchi qatnashdi.

Hisobot shuni ko'rsatdiki, yamoqqa ega bo'lgan oz sonli ishtirokchilar kapsaitsin yamog'idan foydalangandan so'ng, ular "juda" yoki "juda" yaxshilanganligini aytishgan.

Oldingi tekshiruv shuni ko'rsatdiki, past konsentratsiyali kapsaitsin yamoqlari to'g'risidagi ma'lumotlar (tarkibida kapsaitsin 1% dan kam) hech qanday davolash bo'yicha tavsiyalar berish uchun etarli emas va u samarali emas degan xulosaga keldi.

AQShning Oziq -ovqat va farmatsevtika idorasi (FDA) tomonidan postherpetik nevralgiya og'rig'ini davolash uchun yuqori konsentratsiyali (8%) kapsaitsin yamog'i tasdiqlangan. Dastlabki og'riq va yonish hissi tufayli, yamoq lokal behushlik ostida klinikada yoki shifoxonada tibbiyot mutaxassisi tomonidan qo'llaniladi.

Osteoartritdagi og'riq

Da chop etilgan hisobotda Osteoartrit va xaftaga 2014 yilda tibbiyot mutaxassislari artrozni dori-darmonlar va dori-darmonsiz davolash usullaridan foydalanish bo'yicha dalillarni baholab, tizza artrozidagi og'riqlarni davolash bo'yicha ko'rsatma berishdi.

Hisobotda kapsaitsin tizzasi artrozli (ko'p bo'g'imli artrozdan ko'ra) sog'lig'i boshqa kasalliklarga chalingan odamlar uchun mos deb topilgan.

Pastki bel og'rig'i

Da chop etilgan hisobot uchun Orqa miya 2016 yilda tadqiqotchilar bel og'rig'i bilan og'rigan odamlarda o'simlik terapiyasi (shu jumladan kapsaitsin kremi yoki gips) samaradorligini baholaydigan ilgari chop etilgan sinovlarni o'tkazdilar va kapsaitsin platsebodan ko'ra og'riqni kamaytiradi.

Mualliflar shuni ta'kidladilarki, davolash usullarini standart davolanish bilan solishtirish uchun qo'shimcha sinovlar zarur.

Boshqa shartlar

Topikal kapsaitsin ham o'rganilmoqda:

  • Qichishish (nashani uzoq vaqt ishlatishdan kelib chiqadigan holat)
  • Qorinning og'rig'i
  • Vulvodiniya uchun ikkinchi darajali davolanish sifatida

Qiyma go'shtli chili retsepti

Chili va guruch yonma -yon ketadi. Men bu kontseptsiyani yangi bosqichga ko'tardim va hamma narsani bitta qozonda pishiraman!

Ha, guruchli chili faqat bitta qozonli retseptga aylandi va sizning kuningiz juda band bo'lgan paytda tayyorlash juda oson.

Bir soatdan keyin siz yashil qalampir, piyoz, makkajo'xori, pomidor, loviya va guruch bilan to'ldirilgan mol go'shti chili olasiz. Va eng yaxshisi, guruch hamma mazasi bilan birga pishiriladi!

Bitta idish va tugadi! Endi bu menga yoqadigan kechki ovqat!

Bir qozonda pishirish osonligini yoqtirasizmi? Shunda siz, albatta, bizning bitta qozonli retseptlarimizni ko'rib chiqishingiz kerak. Retseptlarga skovorodkali retseptlar, pishiriladigan idishlar, kastryulkalar va boshqalar kiradi!


Ülseratif kolit bilan og'rigan ko'p odamlar kleykovina intoleransiga ega

Kleykovina sezuvchanligi yoki intoleransi yarali kolitli odamlar orasida tobora ortib borayotgan muammo hisoblanadi. So'nggi yillarda ko'proq odamlar oshqozon -ichak trakti kasalliklari va kleykovina sezuvchanligi haqida xabar berishmoqda, bu esa kleykovina yoki bug'doy, arpa, javdar va ba'zi jo'xori oqsillarini iste'mol qilish reaktsiyasini keltirib chiqaradi. Qon testlari, biopsiya va glyutensiz dietaga javob berish, Çölyak kasalligi, qorin bo'shlig'i kasalliklari, diareya yoki og'riq kabi qorin bo'shlig'i kasalliklarini UC simptomlari bilan yanglishishi mumkinmi yoki yo'qligini aniqlay oladi. Agar kleykovina yo'q qilinsa, qo'shimcha alomatlar yengillashadi, agar testlar sizda çölyak kasalligi borligini ko'rsatsa.


Gistamin intoleransi: sizning odatiy oziq -ovqat allergiyangiz emas!

Ichak shilliq qavatida topilgan DAO ferment tizimining etishmasligi gistamin intoleransining eng ehtimoliy sababi sifatida ko'rsatiladi. (2) Fermentlarning individual funktsiyalarida genetik tafovutlar bo'lishi mumkin, lekin bu fermentlarning birining faolligi etarli bo'lmasa, natijada gistaminning ko'payishi allergik reaktsiyaga o'xshash ko'plab alomatlarni keltirib chiqarishi mumkin. Gistamin intoleransining umumiy belgilari quyidagilardan iborat: (3)

  • Qichishish (ayniqsa terining, ko'zning, quloqning va burunning qichishi)
  • Urticaria (ürtiker) (ba'zida "idiopatik ürtiker" deb tashxis qilinadi)
  • To'qimalarning shishishi (angioedema), ayniqsa yuz va og'iz to'qimalarida, ba'zida esa tomoqda, bu tomoq qisilishi tuyg'usini keltirib chiqaradi.
  • Gipotenziya (qon bosimining pasayishi)
  • Taxikardiya (yurak urish tezligi, "yurak urishi")
  • Xavotir yoki vahima hujumiga o'xshash alomatlar
  • Ko'krak og'rig'i
  • Burun tiqilishi, burun oqishi, mavsumiy allergiya
  • Konyunktivit (tirnash xususiyati, suvli, qizargan ko'zlar)
  • O'choklidan farq qiladigan bosh og'rig'ining ayrim turlari
  • Charchoq, tartibsizlik, asabiylashish
  • Ba'zida ongni yo'qotish odatda bir yoki ikki soniya davom etadi
  • Ovqat hazm qilish buzilishi, ayniqsa, oshqozon yonishi, “ oshqozon va#8221, va reflyuks

Gistamin intoleransi boshqa oziq -ovqat allergiyalari yoki sezuvchanligidan farq qiladi, chunki javob darhol emas, balki kumulyativdir. Buni bir stakan suv kabi tasavvur qiling. Qachonki chashka juda to'lgan bo'lsa (dietada gistamin miqdori ko'p bo'lsa), hatto qo'shimcha suv tomchisi ham chashka toshib ketishiga olib keladi (alomatlar faollashadi). Ammo chashka kamroq bo'lsa, javob berish uchun ko'proq suv (gistamin) kerak bo'ladi. Bu gistamin intoleransini tan olishni qiyinlashtiradi.

Bundan tashqari, gistamin intoleransi SIBO va dysbioz bilan chambarchas bog'liq, bu ikkinchisini davolash birinchisini engillashtirishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. Ko'plab integratsion amaliyotchilar, shu jumladan men ham, gistamin intoleransining asosiy sababi ichakda gistamin to'planishiga olib keladigan va organizmning ortiqcha gistaminni katabolizatsiya qilish qobiliyatini oshirib yuboradigan, bakteriyalarning ayrim turlarining ko'payishi, deb ishonishadi. Bu gistamin o'z ichiga olgan oziq-ovqat mahsulotlariga yuqori sezuvchanlik va allergiya bilan bog'liq simptomlarning kuchayishiga olib keladi.

Gistamin intoleransi, sabablari, alomatlari va davolash haqida batafsilroq ma'lumot olish uchun fan doktori doktor Janice Jonejaning ushbu maqolasini ko'rib chiqing. tibbiy mikrobiologiya va immunologiyada va Vankuver kasalxonasi va Sog'liqni saqlash fanlari markazida allergiya bilan oziqlanish dasturining sobiq rahbari.


3. Vorsestershirdan tashqarida butun dunyo bor.

Yaxshi qonli, shuningdek, chuqur ta'mga ega. Bu ta'mi pomidorga o'xshamaydi. Muallif Ernest Xemingueyning mashhur retsepti ixlosmandlari uchun bu qo'shimcha lazzat juda oddiy ingredientlardan keladi: Worcestershire, ohak, tuz, qora murch va qayen. Zamonaviy qon ishlab chiqaruvchilar uchun bu har xil narsalarni anglatishi mumkin. Masalan, Worcestershire o'rniga Seabury balsamik sirka ishlatishni yaxshi ko'radi. “ Menimcha, bu unga ajoyib tang qo'shadi, ” deydi u. Seabury, shuningdek, yangi o'tlarning katta muxlisi, shilantro va maydanozdan tortib Tailand reyhanigacha.

O'zining "Qonli" g'alabasi uchun Bruklin g'olibi Marisa Cadena o'ziga xos bolalik xotirasidan ilhom so'radi: buvisi va#8217s enchiladalari. Uning retsepti qovurilgan pomidor, qovurilgan zira, tamarind, ohak va to'rt xil chili qalampirini o'z ichiga oladi. U aslida pomidorga qaraganda ko'proq tamarind ishlatgan. Cadenaning aytishicha, odamlar pomidorga juda ko'p e'tibor berishadi va lazzatning murakkabligiga etarlicha e'tibor berishmaydi. “Qonli voqeaning kulgili tomoni shundaki, u sizning tanglayingizning barcha qismlariga tegishi mumkin - sizning shirinligingiz, xushbo'yligingiz, achchiq va achchiq. Hammasi bitta ichimlikda, - deydi u. Bu o'z -o'zidan ovqat bo'lishi kerak edi. ”


Yong'in izi: Chili qalampirining hikoyasi

Yoxanna Sinisaloning ’ srereal romanining ochilish sahnasida, Quyosh yadrosi, umidsizlikka uchragan Vanna ismli yosh xonim, tunda qabristonning qorong'i burchagida noqonuniy moddalar sotuvchisi bilan uchrashadi. U kuchli giyohvand moddalarni quyi hududlariga yuborar ekan, Vanna jazirama issiqning tez tarqalishini his qiladi va uning muammolari zavq va og'riqdan keyin yo'qoladi. Bu modda chili qalampirining ichida joylashgan alkaloid birikmasi bo'lgan kapsaitsin deb ataladi, bu ularga o'ziga xos issiqlikni beradi. Yaqin kelajakda Finlyandiya hukumati har bir fuqaroning sog'lig'i va xavfsizligini nazorat qilishni xohlagan bu g'alati distopik romanida, Vanna chili qalampiriga qaramlik, oxir -oqibat uni quyonning uzun teshigidan g'aroyib er osti dunyosiga olib boradi. "Quyosh yadrosi" deb nomlangan boshqa dunyo chili namunasini kashf etdi. Bu boshqa qalampir nafaqat jismoniy kuyishdan ko'ra ko'proq narsani va'da qiladi va Vannaga ruhiy tajribani beradi, unda o'zi va tashqi dunyo o'rtasidagi chegaralar so'na boshlaydi.

Johanna Sinisaloning "Chili" nomli romanining birinchi nashri muqovasi, Quyosh yadrosi

Albatta, o'ziga xos xususiyatlarga ega bo'lgan ko'plab o'simliklar bor va boshqalar bir necha odamga Iso Masihning qayta tug'ilishiga ishonishlariga sabab bo'lgan, lekin bizdan kam odam chili qalampirini bunday tajribalar bilan bog'laydi. Shunga qaramay, Sinisaloning ajoyib g'alati badiiy asari-bu haqiqatni mubolag'a qilishdir, u erda hech qanday chilihead uchun inkor etib bo'lmaydi, bu erda tez-tez ziravorli ovqatlar orqali etkazib beriladigan fikrni o'zgartiradigan jarayon bor. Bu tajriba bizning diqqatimizni kuchaytirishi va bizni hozirgi lahzani to'liq anglashga undashi mumkin. Bu og'riq deb ataladi. Shunga qaramay, Vanna kabi ko'pchiligimiz yana ko'p narsalar uchun qaytib kelamiz. Chili qalampirining deyarli mistik xususiyatlarini rad etishga shoshilmasligimiz kerakdir.

Har doim yangi achchiq soslarni tanlamoqchi bo'lgan, qalampir solingan idishlarni yutib, chililiklarning yangi shtammlarini sinab ko'rish uchun laboratoriyaga o'z xohishimiz bilan qadam qo'yishni istaganlar, shunchaki og'zimizdagi olov tuyg'usini taqlid qilmoqchi emasmiz. Men sabr -toqatim chegaralarini sinab ko'rish istagini erkin tan olsam -da, og'riq chegarasini sinab ko'rishdan ko'ra, achchiq ovqat iste'mol qilish tajribasi ko'proq. Og'iz atrofida va bosh bo'ylab chayqaladigan yaxshi kori yoki salsa keltiradigan yoqimli issiqlik bilan terining har bir teshigi ichimizdagi kuyishdan qutulish uchun baqira boshlaganida, vahima paydo bo'ladi. Birinchisi, bizning miyamiz chili ichida kapsaitsin ishlab chiqaradigan "achchiq idishning xushbo'y hidi" dan zavq bag'ishlaydigan endorfinlar va dopaminni chiqarib, "kuyish" va "8221" ga javob berishidan dalolat beradi. Aksincha, spektrning boshqa uchini ko'rsatadigan Youtube videolarining cheksiz ko'rinishi. Ularda bozorning eng achchiq qalampirini iste'mol qiladigan va odatda ko'z yoshlari bilan to'lib -toshgan va qusish mumkin bo'lgan odamlar bor. Ba'zi chili ekspluatatsiyalari hatto jiddiy shikastlanishga olib keladi, xuddi qizil qalampir deb nomlangan juda achchiq navni iste'mol qilish natijasida qizilo'ngachini yirtib tashlagan odam, va boshqasi, hatto achchiqroq Karolinani iste'mol qilganidan bir necha kun o'tgach, miya shikastlanishi uchun sinovdan o'tgan. O'roqchi. O'ylaymanki, ko'pchiligimiz bu ikki turdagi tajribalar o'rtasida shirin joy borligiga qo'shilamiz. Biz bu tuyg'uni ta'qib qiladigan darajada, issiqlikning mukammal darajasini qidirishda bezovtalikni boshdan kechirishga tayyor bo'lib, ko'pchiligimiz chili va kapsaitsinga qaramlik kabi narsalarni baham ko'ramiz.

Chili ishlab chiqaradigan issiqlik haqida gapirganda, biz aslida illyuziya bo'lgan narsa haqida gapiramiz. Na kapsaitsin, na qalampirning biron bir qismi haqiqiy issiqlikni chiqarmaydi va og'zimizdagi to'qimalarga yuqori harorat ta'sir qilmaydi. Alkaloid birikmasi og'zimizdagi og'riq retseptorlari va bizning ovqat hazm qilish traktimiz bilan o'zaro ta'sir qiladi, agar biz qaynayotgan suvni tomoqqa tashlasak, xuddi shunday javob beradi. Kapsaitsin asab tizimini aldab, ichimizdagi biror narsa yonayotganiga ishonadi, bu qalampirning boshqa dunyodagi sifatiga ishonch beradi.

Shaxsiy qalampirdagi issiqlik darajasi 1912 yilda Wilbur Scoville ismli farmatsevt tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan o'lchov asosida Scoville birliklari deb nomlangan narsa bilan o'lchanadi. Garchi bu sub'ektiv o'lchov bo'lsa -da, ma'lum bir qalampir turiga mansub kapatsinoidlar shakar suvida suyultirilgandan so'ng, ular endi issiqlikni qayd qila olmasliklari haqida xabar berishadi va bu chili issiqlik darajasini aniqlashning standart usulidir. Tabiiy qalampir qalampiridan befarq bo'lmagan odamlar, aslida, bu mudofaani oshpazlik mazoxizmigacha eksponent ravishda oshirish uchun ishlagan. Bizning sevimli baharatlı ovqatlarimizning kapsaitsin darajasini amalda qurollantirish qurollanish poygasiga aylandi. Hozirgi vaqtda Pepper X, Skovil shkalasi bo'yicha uch millionga ro'yxatdan o'tgan (taqqoslaganda, jalapeno sakkiz mingga yaqin), Dragon ’s Breath (yaqinda sobiq chempion Karolina Reaperdan unvonini olgan) ni egallamagan. Balki bir kun o'tgach, biz qalampir purkagichli tako yoki sof kapsaitsinli Tayland makaronini ko'ramiz.

Har xil qalampir navlari uchun Scoville birliklari ko'rsatilgan jadval. Eslatma: Pepper X, Rock Hill, SC dan Ed Currie tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan yangi shtamm. Xabar qilinishicha, 2018 yilda 3 million Scoville issiqlik moslamasidan oshgan.

Chili qalampiridagi issiqlik-bu o'simlikning hayotning eng muhim biologik funktsiyalari-o'zini himoya qilish bilan shug'ullanishi natijasidir. Kapsaitsin, ehtimol, chilini kolonizatsiya qilishga urinish eng yoqimsiz tajriba bo'lgan invaziv qo'ziqorinlardan himoya qilish uchun paydo bo'lgan. Hamma sut emizuvchilar kapsaitsinga sezgir retseptorlarga ega, ular odamlarning urug'ini chaynashni va shu bilan ularning reproduktiv salohiyatini yo'q qilishni yaxshi ko'radigan kemiruvchilardan himoya qiladi. Qushlar kapsaitsin ta'siriga qarshi immunitetga ega va tishlari yo'qligi sababli ular iste'mol qiladigan urug'larga zarar etkazmaydi. Natijada, chili chumchuqlarni qushlar yeyishdan foyda ko'radi, ular uchib ketganda urug'larni yoyib, urug'larga to'lgan axlatni uzoq joylarda qoldiradilar. Sotsiologlar, faylasuflar, biologlar va mening xotinim hali javob bera olmagan sabablarga ko'ra, odamlar og'riqni yo'q qilishni va uning kuchini oshirish yo'llarini izlashni davom ettirdilar. Evolyutsion nuqtai nazardan, bu chili qalampiri uchun yaxshi bo'ldi. Qushlar chili genlarining uzoqqa cho'zilgan joylarga tarqalishini boshlagan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin qalampirni dunyoning har bir burchagiga olib kelgan insoniyatning boshqa sutemizuvchilarning beixtiyor oldini oladigan narsalarini boshdan kechirish istagi.

Kapsaitsin, birinchi navbatda, chili oq pulpasida joylashgan, uning urug'ida emas.

Bizning turimiz va#8217 mazoxistik gastronomiyasini zamonaviy dunyodagi zerikishning yana bir misoli sifatida ko'rish oson bo'lardi, bu erda evolyutsion simli odamlar xavfli dunyoda yashashga majbur bo'lishdi, lekin zamonaviylik hashamatlari bilan yumshatilganlar, tez -tez sarguzashtlarni nazorat ostida va tez -tez qidirishadi. banal, muzqaymoqning bir nechta chaqishi bilan salbiy ta'siridan qutulish mumkin bo'lgan, uyqusizlar uchun arzon ko'rish qobiliyatini shakllantiradi. Chili qalampiri juda uzoq tarixga ega, u ham odamlarning xohish -istagi, ham folklorimizning o'ziga xos xususiyati. Chili qalampiri haqidagi zamonaviy ilmiy-fantastik romanning asosi, ehtimol, ming yillar oldin bu ajoyib taomlarni kashf qilgan odamlarga unchalik to'g'ri kelmagan ko'rinadi.

Chili qayerdan paydo bo'lganini aniqlash qiyin, lekin u birinchi bo'lib hozirgi sakkiz ming yil oldin odamlar yeyishni boshlagan hozirgi Boliviyaning yomg'irli o'rmonlarida paydo bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin. Vaqt o'tishi bilan ular yovvoyi o'simliklarni tanlab olib, yangi erlarga sayohat qilgan qushlar va ehtimol ko'chmanchi odamlar yordamida tarqalishdi. Kultivatsiyaning dastlabki dalillari olti ming yil oldin quritilgan Meksikaning markazidan keladi Capsicum annuum jalapeno, cayenne va poblano kabi mashhur turlarni o'z ichiga oluvchi jins odamlar oziq -ovqat saqlaydigan ko'plab g'orlardan topilgan.

Quritilgan chili Meksikaning Oaxaka vodiysidagi Silviya g'oridan qolgan. Bu qalampir VII -XVI asrlarda yig'ilgan. PNASdan olingan rasm.

Men chili qalampirini birinchi bo'lib tatib ko'rgan odamning videosini va u taklif qilgan suhbatni ko'rishni xohlardim. Og'izlariga nima bo'lgani haqida har xil fikrlar. Ular qo'rqishdimi yoki hayajonlanishganmi? Yoki ikkalasining aralashmasi bo'lishi mumkinmi? Bu tajribadan kelib chiqqan birinchi hikoyalar nima?

Ko'rinib turibdiki, ular ikkinchi luqma olish uchun yaxshi taassurot qoldirishdi. Chili bugungi Lotin Amerikasi va Karib havzasida yashovchi xalqlar oshxonasining markaziy qismi edi. Mezoamerikaliklarning taomlari mintaqalar bo'yicha turlicha edi, lekin umuman olganda, oddiy odamlar uchun mavjud bo'lgan o'simliklar va oqsil manbalari Evrosiyo aholisining asosiy qismi uchun hasad bo'lardi. Boshqa har qanday madaniyatda bo'lgani kabi, taom ham kundalik marosimning bir qismi bo'lib xizmat qilgan, shuningdek, muhim bayramlar va muqaddas kunlar uchun xizmat qilgan. Diniy ro'zalar ko'pincha chili iste'mol qilmaslik bilan bog'liq bo'lib, bu ularning kundalik ratsiondagi ahamiyatini ko'rsatadi. Shtapel shimoldagi makkajo'xori (makkajo'xori), janubda kartoshka, qovoq, loviya va pomidorning ko'p navlari, kurka va baliqdan tortib turli hasharotlar va sochsiz itlargacha bo'lgan oqsillardan iborat bo'lib, hammasi chili bilan xushbo'ylangan. Ba'zi marosim taomlari, xususan, Aztek va Maya kechki ovqatlarida shokoladli ichimliklar, shuningdek, chili tomonidan xushbo'ylashtirilardi, shuning uchun XVI asr ispan etnografi bu qadimiy issiq shokolad va "8220chili suvi" deb atagan. Aztek madaniyatida marosim kannibalizm, odatda qurbonlik qilingan va bo'laklarga bo'lingan asirlarning go'shtini pishirishni o'z ichiga olgan. Umuman olganda, bu pishiriqlar asossiz edi, lekin ocharchilik paytida, bu qurbonliklar ko'payib, odam go'shti keng tarqatilganda, uni chili bilan ziravorlar qo'shish mumkin edi.

16 -asrda Florensiya kodeksidan tushgan Aztek erkaklar bayrami

Kolumbiyadan oldingi Amerika afsonalari va folklorining tarixiy izlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, bu g'alati achchiq qalampirni boshqa dunyo bilan birinchi marta uchrashganlar ko'rgan. Inka chili issiqligini chaqmoq kuchi bilan bog'lagan. Ularning yaratilish tarixi, dunyoni zabt etib, imperiya qurgan afsonaviy birinchi imperator Manko Kapak va uning uch akasi kelishi haqida hikoya qiladi. Ayar Uchu ismli birodar chilini muqaddas o'simlik deb hisoblardi (uning ismi "aka -uka Chili" deb tarjima qilinadi). Maya xalq ertagida quyosh er yuzidagi qizni sevib qoldi, lekin uning o'ta himoyalangan otasi o'z qizini osmondan otib, ishini tugatmoqchi bo'ldi. The sun saw it coming and tried to defend itself by putting dried chili powder in the angry father’s blowgun. When he took a breath to shoot he inhaled the spicy pepper and died, but not before the dart was fired and hit its mark. The theretofore temperate star was “spiced up” by the chili-covered dart and that is how the sun got its heat. In a tale of the Zuni heroes, Ahaiyuta and Matsailema, the chili was born in the spot where the pair buried their grandmother. The plant grew fruits that, like a loving but cranky elder was wholesome, but could deliver a sharp bite.

Mayan shamans used the pepper in a concoction that included tobacco and other wild growing plants to help them on mystical journeys to higher states of consciousness. The spicy peppers were used in Olmec, Mayan, and Aztec cultures for medicinal purposes often as an anti-inflammatory and antibiotic used to treat ailments like respiratory infections and bowel discomfort. There was a potion in Aztec medicinal lore that mixed ground chilies with cacao and vanilla, not for use as a high end caffeinated beverage, but as an aphrodisiac. In other native cultures, men rubbed raw chilies on their genitals to cause a numbing affect that prolonged sexual pleasure.

When burned chilies give off a harsh, stinging smoke and this was seen to be a protective force from evil spirits during burial rites. It also kept vermin out of food stores, two acts that were probably seen as equally practical. The Mixe and Zoque peoples of Central America filled tombs of the departed with pots full of chilies, presumably to either protect or sustain the spirits of the dead, or maybe both. The Inca, however banned the presence of chilies at a funeral, likely due to the high value of the crop. In Central America, newborn babies had their feet rubbed by chilies, presumably as an antiseptic of sorts to ensure good health and protection from evil. In the Caribbean, long strands of chilies were tied to the back of boats to ward off sharks. After the Spanish conquests, chili peppers maintained their protective qualities even amidst the newfound devotion to Christianity. Late seventeenth century historian, Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán, one the first historians of the new world, recommended to all who listen to eat chilies as a form of protection against poison.

In Mexico, a home that had been the target of maleficio, or black magic could be exorcised by walking from room to room with a pot of smoking chilies mixed with other herbs and spices. The inside of an ancho chili could be used to rub the skin of a child who had fallen victim to the evil eye. The vampiric luban oko, or red demon of the Amazon could be held at bay either by burning chilies or by making sure all food is spiced heavily with them so the fiend will not eat, thereby ensuring that it dies of either asphyxiation or starvation. To this day entryways to homes, stores, and churches can be seen with hanging ristras, strings of dried chilies meant to keep the home healthy and to discourage witches and malevolent spirits from entering. Chilies could also be used for evil purposes. In Cuba it is a sure sign that you’ve been bewitched or cursed with “hot foot” if you wake to find chili pods outside of your door. In Mexican lore, there is a potion that can be used to kill that mixes various types of peppers with dried scorpions and other types of venomous bugs. One can be forgiven for wondering if the removal of the peppers would reduce the lethality of this concoction.

Ristras – strings of dried chili hanging outside of windows in New Mexico.

Among Pueblo peoples of what today is the southwestern United States, particularly the Hopi and Zuni there are supernatural beings called the kachina who are physical manifestations of spirits that represent important aspects of life and culture. They serve ceremonial and spiritual functions and also, by way of elaborate dances enacted in their name, are the actors in dramas both cosmic and local in scope. The Tsil Kachina, or chili pepper spirit is one of the more popular characters in this body of lore. He belongs to a class of kachinas, called runners who may show up to challenge children to a foot race. If the child wins, he or she can expect elaborate gifts, but if the kachina wins, he will stuff the child’s face with scalding chili peppers. Hopi artists have long depicted various kachinas in doll form and the tsil kachina appears holding a ristra or a bundle of peppers and wearing a crown of chilies on his head.

The pain-causing potential of capsaicin made it inevitable that human beings would figure out ways to turn chilies into weapons. Early Europeans learned this lesson rather quickly. After months of abuse at the hands of settlers who’d arrived with Columbus, the Taino people of Hispanola raided Fort La Isabela. They could not match the steel swords of the Spaniards, but by hurling gourds filled with ash and dried chilies over the walls that upon explosion, filled the air with clouds of eye and throat-stinging flakes they managed to kill a few of them. Later Spanish and Portuguese conquerors would contend with these and other forms of chili-based chemical warfare. Aztecs and Mayans filled gourds with chili peppers and water that caused the peppers to ferment and serve as an a rotted organic grenade full of crippling fumes and eye-scorching liquid. In Mexico, a group of rebels fighting against Aztec political domination, sealed quarters being used by emissaries of Montezuma and filled the room with burning chili smoke until the officials died of suffocation. Spanish viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza commissioned a history of the Aztec people that became known as The Codex Mendoza. A section on daily life in an Aztec village shows a scene that depicts the use of chili in domestic discipline. One panel shows a boy held by his father over a pile of burning chilies, the noxious smoke filling his eyes and causing black tears to stream down his face. In another panel a mother holds her daughter near a similar smoky pile, apparently the threat was enough to deter her from misbehaving. I once inadvertently rubbed my eye after chopping jalapeños and I can vouch for the crippling power of capsaicin.

Top: Carved Tsil Kachina doll. Bottom: Section from the Codex Mendoza showing the disciplinary power of chili smoke.

With the arrival of Columbus on the island of Hispanola in October of 1492, life for American natives was about to change drastically. His coming ushered in centuries of misery for the natives as Europeans who followed showed an insatiable appetite for slaves and precious metals. But Columbus did not sail to the Americas primarily in search of these treasures. He was looking for a passage to the the East Indies, islands legendary as the place of origin for such exotic spices as ginger, clove, cinnamon, and most especially, pepper.

For millennia, wealthy Europeans had developed a taste for the spices of Asia, faraway lands that they often viewed in the same way children imagine the exotic worlds of their fairy tales. Eastern spices journeyed through complex trade networks that involved sea-faring Chinese ships, Indian entrepôts and overland Arab caravans, and wealthy Europeans spent great resources to obtain pepper from the Malabar Coast of India, Cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves from the Moluccas of the South Pacific, Ginger from China, Persian saffron and many other valuable spices from the places not well documented on their maps. These exotic flavors arrived in European ports dried, or preserved in oil and little, if any information could be easily discerned about their origins. As always seems to be the case, gaps in knowledge were filled in with the most wild imagery. Herotodus the great Greek father of history opined that cinnamon grew on tall mountains far to the East and it was retrieved by gigantic birds and ancient Minoan ruins depict carvings of saffron being cultivated by trained monkeys. Spices were imagined to have been born in Edenic paradises where strange creatures lurked. The mythic land of Cockaygne, popular in medieval European poetry and ballads imagined a Utopia where luxuries and pleasures were the norm and “…ginger and…nutmeg, Are what they use to pave the street”. Even in recent centuries, spices were thought to have amazing powers for healing and the manipulation of elemental forces. A peppercorn-like seed from Africa, known as melegueta pepper (Aframomum melegueta) is sometimes called grains of paradise, a magical name that reflected the belief that the spice could help sorcerers divine the future. Columbus was not just searching for an economic score, but also items of miraculous power.

Top: 17th century map of spice islands from Kerry Stokes Collection, Perth Australia. Bottom: 12th century depiction of pepper trees being guarded by magical serpents. Oxford University collection.

Columbus returned from his first trans-Atlantic journey a bit short of any of these mythic spices, though brought a few pieces of bark that he hoped might be cinnamon. In this sense, Columbus’ journey was a failure and it would take Portuguese explorers beginning with Vasco de Gama to open up the spice markets of Asia to direct trade with Europe. Columbus, did return to Spain with a handful of chilies, or as the natives called them, aji, that he found growing all over the island of Hispanola. He’d never seen anything like the chili, but decided because of its piquancy (and perhaps with a bit of wishful thinking) that it must be some kind of peppercorn, so he decided to call it pimienta, the Spanish word for “pepper”. We continue to live with this confusing name to this day, even though there is no botanical relationship between the chili and the peppercorn. Though the introduction of the chili to the Spanish court won Columbus little favor, the new plant quickly caught on and traveled across the globe.

It’s nearly impossible to imagine Italian cuisine without tomatoes, English holidays without mashed potatoes, and French desserts without chocolate and vanilla. But no one in these lands had even a hint that such foods existed before Columbus set foot in the Western hemisphere. Nor were there Indian vindaloos, fiery Thai curries (which also lacked peanuts and pineapples), and the infamously spicy Sizchuan and Hunan cuisine of China was made so by a relatively mild local spice that has also been confused for peppercorns. There was no Hungarian paprika and Korean kimchi was made without gochugaru, the bright red chili powder that gives it the bright red color we all know. All of these foods are what they are because of the chili that became part of these cuisines after the fifteenth century. The so-called Columbian Exchange that brought the human beings from the Eastern and Western hemispheres together for the first time since the Bering Strait land bridge disappeared more than thirteen thousand years earlier resulted in a massive exchange in resources and culture The West was introduced to coffee and the East, tobacco. Americans got smallpox, Africans and Eurasians got syphilis, African slaves were carried across the globe in perhaps the most brutal economic exchange in human history, and wealth traveled generally in the direction of western Europe. A great deal of human misery occurred but so did the seeds of cultural evolution and through it all, the chili went along for the ride.

Top: Indian vindaloo. Bottom: Korean cabbage kimchi

As the chili journeyed across the globe it slid smoothly into different world cuisines, complimenting or sometimes replacing native roots and herbs as the major source of piquancy. The Portuguese arrived in Africa in the early 1500s to buy slaves, paid for in part with chili peppers. The new peppers took almost immediately to West African cuisines, often as a stand in for the native spice, melegueta pepper (a plant related to ginger that, like chilies, is yet another spice inaccurately called “pepper”). These new peppers so immediately ingrained in local food preparation, that when slaves brought recipes for chili pastes to the new world they often believed they had introduced the spicy peppers to the new world.

In India and Southeast Asia dishes spiced with peppercorns, mustard seeds and ginger found new levels of heat with the introduction of chilies. Again, the Portuguese are responsible for spreading the pepper across, the Indian subcontinent, today the world’s largest grower and consumer of these spicy peppers. Vasco de Gama had chilies with him when he arrived on the famed spice kingdom of the Malabar Coast in 1498 and Portuguese traders cultivated them when they established the outpost of Goa in 1510. A year later, a Portuguese diplomatic delegation introduced chilies to the kingdom of Ayutthaya (in what is today, Thailand). They arrived on the coast of China, establishing a trading post in 1513 at Macao. From these spots, the chili spread like (pardon the pun) fire and caused many local cuisines to evolve into a hotter direction.

Wherever it went, the chili brought not only its heat, but also its mystique. In India chilies began to replace other spices in both medicinal uses and for spiritual protection. Hind Ayurvedic medicine incorporated the new food into its system of well-being. Indians continue to hang wreaths of chilies that are reminiscent of Mexican ristras around their doors and windows for protection against supernatural threats. Similarly, there is a ritual in parts of India in which new born babies are blessed with a mix of lemon, ash, and chili peppers, burnt to ward off evil spirits. In Bhutanese homes where more than two pounds of chilies are consumed on average every week, peppers are still burned to ward off invisible demons, especially if someone in the home is sick. A chili pepper can also be dropped into a bottle of liquor to help keep the demon of drunkenness at bay. Chilies are burnt at Basque weddings as well, though not to ward off evil spirits as much as to invite those associated with fertility. The cornicello, or Italian horn is a talisman meant to protect against witches, vampires, and other nasty spirits is shaped like a chili pepper, perhaps as an attempt to call forth the pepper’s mystical properties.

Italian cornicello pendants

Chilies left the Americas and spread around the world quickly, but the Europeans whose colonial activities spread them adopted the peppers less uniformly. Spanish and Portuguese cuisine readily pulled them into their cuisines to spice native foods like chorizos va paellas. Every July where I live in southeastern Massachusetts there is a short window of time in which shepherd peppers are in season and the large local Portuguese population grabs them up to make pimenta moida, a crushed red pepper mash that gives Portuguese food much of its flair. To a lesser extent Italy also adopted the chili. Though it plays much less of a dominant role than it does in many other food traditions, I can’t imagine my pasta dishes without a sprinkling of crushed red pepper flakes or salads without the addition of a bit of giardiniera, a spicy relish of pickled vegetables and chili peppers. In Eastern Europe paprika, a dried and crushed chili powder is an ingredient of central importance, but chilies took the scenic route in arriving there. In the bordering lands of central Europe traditional cuisine is historically bland and, in fact, has more readily embraced the the bell pepper, the only strand of pepper that doesn’t contain capsaicin. This is in large part because the early days of the chili’s global journey coincided with the Protestant Reformation and central European converts to the new faith were uninterested in dealing with Catholic enemies, cutting off Iberian and Italian peppers from the more moderate appetites of Northern Europe. Instead, the chili made its way into the Balkans and the goulashes of Hungary by migrating across Asia and into Eastern Europe by way of the Ottoman Empire.

Here in the United States we are a few days away from Cinco de Mayo, a holiday that commemorates the Mexican victory over France at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. The day actually holds more importance for Americans eager to eat delicious Mexican food than it does for most Mexicans. Chilies were certainly present in English-speaking North America relatively early, however one does not think of old Yankee cuisine as having a great deal of spice. The peppers hardly became a feature of life for most Anglo-Americans until the nineteenth century when pioneers heading west came into closer contact with Mexicans and Native Americans who controlled much of the frontier. Cowboy cuisine sprang up around camps and settler towns, especially in places like Texas where English, Spanish, and Native American influences melded into a sort of creole culture and the foods of each began to intermingle. Though meat stewed in chilies was an ancient American tradition, the modern version known as chili con carne (or just “chili”) descends from dishes made in the sixteenth century when Spanish settlers introduced Eurasian spices to the mix, including cumin a North African seasoning that has since become synonymous with Mexican-American flavors. Chili con carne was popularized in nineteenth century Texas, when a group of laundry ladies turned their wash tubs into cooking pots and began stewing goat meat or beef with ground ancho chilies, becoming known in San Antonio as “Chili Queens“. Tex-Mex cuisine introduced the world to nachos and enchiladas and saw traditional Mexican flavors lumped with lots of melted cheese.

“Chili Queens” selling bowls of chili con carne from outdoor food stands for hungry laborers in San Antonio, Texas circa 1880s

Chilies are one of the earliest symbols of globalization, riding on a fifteenth century expansion of the ancient silk road spice trade that has left few places on Earth free of its touch. Wherever it took root, it brought with it distinctive properties of flavor, look, and of course, of its characteristic tendency to bite back those anyone who ate them. This last attribute struck those who tried them as otherworldly and often magical. Even today, peppers are often named for poisonous animals (Naga Viper, Trinidad Scorpion) or given associations with death (Ghost Pepper, Carolina Reaper). Given its history as a charm to ward off evil, its ironic how hot sauces often dare eaters to sample them with demonic names like Satan’s Blood, Hellfire, and even that purveyor of cardboard Mexican food, Taco Bell calls their hottest offering, El Diablo. In a world where our food is increasingly watered down and processed, the chili and its human allies seem prepared to walk in a different direction. These ominously named foods invite us to step into an experience not just of flavor and pain and pleasure, but also a glimpse into the long story of this little but potent fruit.

Next month I’ll journey into the shadows in a quest to unlock the history and legend of the elusive ninja.


Beat Bobby Flay

The chips are all in when world-traveled chef Philippe Haddad meets New York's Chef Melissa O'Donnell. It's up to Scott Conant and Geoffrey Zakarian to place their bets on the chef who they think can beat Bobby Flay.

Seeing Stars

Food Network Star alums Alex McCoy and Jay Ducote are in the house to outshine Bobby Flay. Food Network Star winner Damaris Phillips teams up with Chef Richard Blais to ensure that Bobby's star burns out.

Snaked Out

The kitchen gets steamy when Derek Simcik, named Sexiest Chef, goes up against Philadelphia's haute chef, Sylva Senat. Chopped's Chris Santos and Marc Murphy choose which chef will burn Bobby Flay.

A Taste of Summer

It's a roller coaster of a battle when Carnival Eats' Noah Cappe teams up with Worst Cooks in America's Anne Burrell to choose between Los Angeles' acclaimed chef Mark Peel and Brooklyn's Nick Williams. At the end of the night, all they want is to see Bobby Flay throw his arms up in defeat.

It's a Date

Things get shrewd when Iron Chef's Alex Guarnaschelli and Alton Brown join forces. It's up to partners in business and in life, chefs Lisa Carlson and Carrie Summer, to outsmart the one and only Bobby Flay!

Knocked Out

Bobby Flay won't know what hit him when Chicago's Ian Davis and one of food's finest, Chef Joseph Keller, enter the arena. Chopped's Ted Allen and Worst Cook in America's Anne Burrell team up to ensure the knockout.

Finding Stars

Food Network's Giada De Laurentiis and People Magazine's Jess Cagle reach for the stars when they match up Atlanta's dynamic Greek chef Pano Karatassos and New York City's Mimi Weissenborn to take down Bobby Flay.

Clear the Deck

It's all hands on deck when Napa Valley's Daniel Gomez Sanchez competes against Atlanta's Matthew Ridgway. TV host Daphne Oz and Food Network's Eddie Jackson hold nothing back when it comes to slaying Bobby Flay.

Funny or Fried

Food Network's Alton Brown and Amanda Freitag ensure there's no funny business when Napa Valley's Gregory Wiener and comedian Daphne Brogdon compete to boo Bobby Flay out of his kitchen.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Andijon markazidagi qurilish fuqarolar etiroziga sabab bolmoqda (May 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Halebeorht

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  2. Maolruadhan

    Men siz bilan gaplashmoqchiman, menda bu masalada aytadigan narsasi bor.

  3. Talbott

    Rahmat, mazali!

  4. Isam

    Menimcha u noto'g'ri. Ishonchim komil. Men buni muhokama qilishni taklif qilaman. Menga kechqurun menga yozing, u siz bilan gaplashmoqda.

  5. Shem

    Qiziqarli. Biz bir xil mavzuda yangi xabarlarni kutmoqdamiz.

  6. Rane

    wonderfully, very entertaining phrase



Xabar yozing